The principles of mercantilism were glorified
Zeitbilder 5/6, textbook
Court society in breath. All life at court was ordered by strict etiquette. Each individual was assigned a fixed position and a specific role. This also served to expand and secure the supremacy of the king. A critic of Louis XIV, the Duke of Saint-Simon, wrote of the Sun King's methods of keeping court society dependent To contribute to the court. This was one of the ways in which the nobility were deprived of their importance and accustomed to equality. In this way, every personal and ancestral distinction was slowly being forgotten. (Guggenbühl, Sources for General History III, 1965, p. 269 f.) Ludwig XIV also appeared as a patron of art. However, he only used this to glorify his person and rule (cf. method: Interpreting portraits of rulers, p. 156 f.). The Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. The room is 73 meters long and has 17 precious mirrors. Administration in the service of the king Louis XIV consistently continued the centralization and standardization of administration. This resulted in a strong expansion of state bureaucracy. This development was favored by the system of the purchase of offices, which has been common in France since the Middle Ages. For all offices in state administration, money had to be paid to the royal financial administration. This very soon realized what an almost inexhaustible source of income this post charter represented. Therefore, new posts were constantly created, the owners of which could also sell their office on. However, if a public official died in his office, it reverted to the crown. Mercantilism - economy in the service of the king The absolutist state had a high need for money because of the magnificent court, the large bureaucratic apparatus and the expensive wars. A form of economy controlled by the state therefore developed - mercantilism. This economic theory was based on the assumption that the production of goods had to be stimulated. Colbert wrote in a memorandum to Louis XIV: Q The paper mills, metal goods factories, silk and linen weaving mills, soap mills and all other manufactories were and are completely ruined. (...) If these factories were to be set up in our country again, we would not only have their products for our needs, but we would also have surpluses for exports, which in turn would bring us a return flow of money. In a word, this is the sole aim of trade and the only means of increasing the size and power of this state. (...) I think we will readily agree on the principle that it is solely the wealth of money that explains the differences in power and size between states. (History in Quellen III, 1966, p. 447 f.) What is the central concern of Colbert's economic policy measures? Where does he see the difference between the states based? Are Colbert's principles still valid today? The main goal of the mercantilists was an active trade balance: the total value of exports should be greater than the total value of imports. Luxury goods (fine fabrics, mirrors, tapestries, valuable furniture, etc.) should be produced in your own country, sold there, but also exported. It was also desirable to import raw materials that were processed into finished goods domestically and that could be exported at a profit. Domestic raw materials should, however, not be exported under any circumstances. This was controlled by a strict customs policy with high import duties. The mercantilists also advocated the acquisition of colonies to serve as suppliers of cheap raw materials and buyers of expensive manufactured goods. Domestic wages should be kept low. The aim was to secure competitiveness on international markets. Therefore, the mercantilists demanded low food prices in order to starve the workers despite the low wages. The system of rule of Louis XIV Decision on income, tax legislation subjects on the 153 Absolutism and Enlightenment 5 For test purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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