Can a urine toxicology test be beaten
After evaluating several studies, Kleiber and Soellner come to the conclusion that physical withdrawal symptoms in cannabis users are hardly describable and at best are weak. Furthermore, they found that studies in German-speaking countries that deal with the consumption of cannabis and the associated development of addiction were mainly carried out in the psychiatric field, which led to systematic bias in the conclusions regarding addiction and other problems, especially since the users studied predominantly also used other legal and illegal drugs.
The development of cannabis addiction is closely related to social factors, the personal maturity of the user and an early start to use. Long-term users may experience insomnia if they stop using the drug. In individual cases, this can take up to 21 days
The Kleiber-Kovar study for the Federal Ministry of Health in 1994 came to the result that up to 20 percent of drug users are dependent. Within the test subjects examined, it was approx. 8-14 percent (depending on the interpretation of the dependency criteria); Of the pure cannabis users, 2 percent were addicts within the examined group; the other addicts in the study took other drugs besides cannabis. More users rated themselves as addicts than would have been the case according to psychiatric survey methods. Dependence on cannabis is mainly due to special personal circumstances, for example an early entry age plays a major role, according to the conclusion of this study. An early start carries the risk that the consumer will not learn about other ways and means to master problems in life or to have fun. The use of cannabis as a tool to suppress problems is also considered dangerous.
With regular, intensive users, a tolerance effect (dose increase in order to achieve intoxication) can develop; individual studies have indicated the possible development of such an effect. This tolerance affects some, but not all, of the typical effects of cannabis, so intensive users also consume higher doses than moderate users. Compared to most other drugs, however, this effect can be assessed as rather minor.
With increasing cannabis use, the first thing parents notice is a decline in school performance: loss of motivation, aimlessness, learning, concentration and memory disorders, passivity and general lethargy increase. Long-term consumption can lead to chronic bronchitis, and cancer of the respiratory tract has also been diagnosed. In men, the production of sperm decreases, and after a sudden withdrawal, as with other drugs, there is a withdrawal syndrome, poor appetite, sweating, restlessness, sleep disorders and psychological complaints. About 1% of cannabis users suffer from transient psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations in the sense of an acute organic psychosis. This can lead to cannabis psychosis, which is very similar to schizophrenia.
Unfortunately, some believe that you cannot become addicted to cannabis at all, but that is wrong. Although there are only very mild symptoms of physical dependence (e.g. difficulty sleeping when quitting) with cannabis, severe psychological dependence can arise.
Dependent cannabis use means a severe reduction in the quality of life, even if many stoners are reluctant to admit it. Unlike other drugs, the effects of cannabis addiction are less noticeable, more hidden, and more ambiguous. Some habitual stoners are z. B. very unsure whether their difficulties in contact with others (insecurity, shyness) actually have something to do with smoking weed. Or the concentration disorders, forgetfulness or depressed moods. Or the fact that they want and plan a lot, but don't “get going”. Because maybe there were some difficulties even at times when smoking weed didn't play a major role.
The dependence on cannabis often develops because one is imperceptibly more and more tempted to suppress difficult everyday situations and the associated unpleasant feelings or thoughts by smoking weed. And the longer you use cannabis for everyday life, the less you can imagine that you can live well without smoking weed. In addition, the next joint quickly makes you forget feelings of disappointment or dissatisfaction.
Withdrawal from marijuana / hash
Researchers are discovering that withdrawal from heavy marijuana use is similar to what people experience when they stop smoking cigarettes. Abstention from any of these drugs appears to cause several common symptoms such as irritability, anger, and difficulty sleeping, based on self-reports in a recent study of 12 heavy users of both marijuana and cigarettes.
"These results indicate that some marijuana users experience withdrawal effects when attempting to quit, and that these effects should be considered by clinicians treating people with problems associated with heavy cannabis use," says the researcher in the study Ryan Vandrey, Ph.D. from the Department of Psychiatrys at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Marijuana is the most widely used banned drug in the United States. Approvals in substance abuse therapy facilities in which marijuana was the main substance of concern have more than doubled since the early 1990s and now the early rank in terms of total cocaine and heroin similar to annual treatment episodes in the United States, Vandrey says.
He points out that a lack of data, until recently, has led to cannabis withdrawal symptoms that are not characterized or included in medical reference literature such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, (DSM-IV) or the International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD -10).
Since the drafting of the DSM-IV in 1994, a growing number of studies have surfaced suggesting that cannabis has significant withdrawal symptoms. What makes Vandrey's recent study unique is that it is the first to compare marijuana withdrawal symptoms with withdrawal symptoms clinically recognized in the medical community - specifically the tobacco withdrawal syndrome.
"Since tobacco withdrawal symptoms (see also nicotine withdrawal) are well documented and included in the DSM-IV and IDC -10, we can conclude from the results of this comparison for the improvement of treatment outcomes that marijuana withdrawal is also clinically important and is included in these reference materials should be viewed as an objective "say Vandrey.
Vandrey added that this is the first "controlled" comparison of the two withdrawal syndromes in these data obtained using rigorous scientific methods - abstinence from drugs was stated objectively, procedures were identical during each abstinence period and abstinence periods occurred in a random order .
That tobacco and marijuana withdrawal symptoms were reported by the same participants, thus removing the likelihood that results would reflect physiological differences between subjects, is also a strength of the study.
Interestingly, the study also found that half of the participants found it easier to abstain from both substances than it was to stop marijuana or tobacco individually, while the remainder had the opposite answer.
"Given the general consensus among clinicians that it is harder to give up more than one substance at the same time, these results suggest the need for more research into treatment planning for people using more than one drug at the same time on a regular basis" said Vandrey.
Vandrey's study, which appears in the January issue of the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, followed six men and six women at the University of Vermont at Burlington and Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C for a grand total of six weeks. All were over 18 (mean age 28.2 years), used marijuana for at least 25 days a month and smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day.
None of the subjects intended to stop using any substance, did not use other prohibited drugs in the previous month, was not on any psychotropic medication, did not have mood sickness, and when female was not pregnant.
For the first week, participants claimed their normal cigarette use and normal hash / cannabis. For the remaining five weeks it was accidentally willed that they failed to use any cigarette, marijuana, or both substances for five-day periods separated from nine-day periods of normal use. To confirm abstinence, patients were given daily quantitative urine toxicology tests for tobacco and marijuana metabolites.
Withdrawal symptoms were self, reported Monday through Friday on a daily basis using a withdrawal symptoms checklist for aggression listing points, anger, change in appetite, depressed mood, irritability, anxiety / nervousness, restlessness, difficulty sleeping, strange dreams and others less general withdrawal symptoms. Patients also provided a general point of discomfort experienced during each abstinence period.
Results showed that overall withdrawal severity was associated with marijuana alone, and tobacco alone was of similar frequency and intensity. Sleep disorder appeared to be more pronounced during abstinence from marijuana, while some of the mood effects (fear, anger) appeared to be greater during abstinence from tobacco. Additionally, six of the participants reported that giving up both marijuana and tobacco was more difficult at the same time than giving up either drug alone, while the remaining six found it was easier to give up marijuana or cigarettes individually than it was to yourself to contain two substances simultaneously. Vandrey recognizes that the small sample size is a limitation in this study, but the results are consistent with other studies, indicating that marijuana withdrawal effects are clinically important.
Source: Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions - 2008.
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