How can cabinet members be removed?

Federal government

Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. It consists of the Federal Chancellor (currently a Federal Chancellor), who determines the political guidelines, and the Federal Ministers, who have to adhere to these guidelines, but who otherwise manage their federal ministries independently. Federal government.
The Federal Government consists of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Ministers. What the majority in the Bundestag, the legislature, wants, as the head of the executive branch, it translates into practical political measures. At the same time, as the political leadership of Germany, it has the task of independently taking initiatives, setting political goals, steering the overall development of our country and planning for the long term.

The Basic Law states that the Federal Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag [Art. 63 GG]. It goes without saying that this is also done, but the decision as to who should become Chancellor was practically made by the citizens beforehand in the Bundestag election. Bundestag elections have become chancellor elections in which the parties advertise their candidates for chancellor to the citizens and put them up for selection.

The Federal Chancellor is the head of the federal government. He thus also bears overall responsibility towards Parliament. The Federal Ministers are appointed and dismissed by the Federal President on his proposal. You have to adhere to the Chancellor's political guidelines and cannot overrule him. The Bundestag cannot simply remove an elected Chancellor from office. Only if there is a majority for the election of a successor can he be overthrown (constructive vote of no confidence) - this has only been the case since 1949 (Helmut Schmidt 1982). If the Federal Chancellor demands that the governing coalition expressly express its confidence in him in a vote and it does not do so, then the Federal President can dissolve the Bundestag and order new elections on the proposal of the Federal Chancellor. [Art. 68 GG]. The Bundestag cannot vote out individual federal ministers. Only if the Chancellor is overthrown do the Federal Ministers have to go, and all of them.

The Federal Chancellor has his own office, the Federal Chancellery, the headquarters of government work. He thus observes and coordinates the work in the individual federal ministries - and controls it at the same time. According to the motto that you should not only do good, but also talk about it, he also controls the government's public relations work with the help of the Federal Government's Press and Information Office. It reports directly to the Chancellor.

All previous federal governments have been coalition governments. That is, several factions formed an alliance (coalition) and stipulated in a coalition agreement which government policy they wanted to pursue in the future. How many ministers they then sent to the federal government depended on their strength in parliament.

Source: Thurich, Eckart: pocket politik. Democracy in Germany. revised New edition Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education 2011.