Who was John Charles Freemont

John Charles Fremont

[528]

John Fremont.

By delivering the authentic portrait of Fremont as promised in no. 35 today (made from a New York original), we refer you to the detailed article of the number given for the description.

[472]
"Nominated" President of the Freemen in the United States.

Now is an interesting time in North America. In all cities and towns, in all rural communities and in every farmhouse, there is lively political life. Everywhere the great issues of the country are discussed and the various parties are recruited; The newspapers lay against each other and people's assemblies were held in the central places, for it was a matter of preparing for the great battle that is to be fought in the fall of the presidential election, the failure of which is more significant than ever for the future of America.

This is Buchanan, this is Fremont, this is Fillmore!“It echoes through the whole country, and each of the parties identified by it believes it can win. The unanimity that prevailed in the provisional appointment of these three candidates shows how concentrated their interests are, and how keen they are on their goal.

But how could it be otherwise? History has already been active in recent times, and has opened the eyes of everyone who wants to see to the crisis which America is facing if it does not pull itself up to survive it vigorously!

The Kansas Civil War and the Revolutionary Emergency Response, to which the people in California were forced, has shown all honest people who are concerned about the future good of America’s, that they no longer have to lay their hands in their laps, but must help to ward off the threatening situation. The democracy of the south has reached the height of its power and its arrogance, and if it now succeeds in increasing the number of slave states through Kansas, the north is in danger of being utterly subjugated, and the achievements of its development are in question to see.

It is now evident how wrong the North has done to give in to the South and to abstain from attacking slavery as a principle. The South has imposed the slave capture law on him, which makes every free state the scene of the most worthless slavery, which kills humanity and degrades the inhabitants of America to the lowest level of wild tribes. The rudeness that has grown out of this now attacks the rule most brutally, so that it is not ashamed of itself to act with canes in the Washington Senate and to attack unarmed old men because they have spoken against slavery.

The same rawness extends its hand to conquer the entire American continent, and wants to let it come down to war with Europe, while internally it seeks to exclude foreign immigrants from all state offices and to impose on them American morals and American hypocrisy for tolerance.

All of this is part of the essence of American democracy. With the full development of it, however, it has also begun to perish. The north must now be given the task of overcoming the south. Even if he still does not succeed in winning the presidential election, he must help him if he persists in his hostile position and uses the same means of threatening to dissolve the Union that the South has hitherto made use of Purposes enforced.

The south has the great advantage of being united while the north is divided. Even now he still is. Part of this goes with the Democrats, and although the Whigs have long since lost the prospect of forming a ruling party, they cling once more to Fillmore, who came to the presidential chair in quieter times, and seek him with the help of the rest of the as to raise one's own party of completely scattered know-nothings (of the exclusive Americans who want to know nothing but about themselves and their rights). It is already certain that they will not be able to win, because all energetic men of the north have turned to the party who are determined to finally make America a truly republican country and therefore above all to fight for the fundamental freedom that it needs, to become free in yourself.

The republican North America are the representatives of the modern age, and therefore the future must also belong to them. The democrats of the south let their states run wild and degenerate, so that America would have to perish as Greece and the Roman Empire once did to slavery [473] would perish unless another, better force had grown up on American soil at the same time. It is only now truly emerging, and for the first time the presidential election will turn into a decisive battle over the principle of slavery.

The weight is not negligible German emigration placed in the weighing pan. The entire younger part of them, all the men of 1848, are on the side of the republicans, and the firmness with which they stand up for them, not only in the north but also in the south, has made the greatest impression. The 60,000 gymnasts in the Union, which are in contact with one another, are alone in a position, when it comes down to it, to deliver an army from which the south would soon succumb if its lust for domination led to civil war.

As energetically as the Republicans have presented themselves as a party, they have also gone to work in the election of their presidential candidate.

You have chosen a man who deserves to be the hero of the future because he has as much intellect as a force of character and has shown that he knows how to use the latter.

The 43 year old John Charles Fremont is perhaps the youngest candidate to be elected for the presidency, but none the less one of the most worthy to have been elected. The "Boy Scout" Fremont, the man to whom America owes its possession of California, is the most splendid candidate that they could confront the old, shrewd diplomat Buchanan, who was familiar with all lists, and this contrast already expresses a historical force.

There is something fateful about Fremont’s effectiveness so far, and so the sudden launch of his candidacy appears, which has therefore only worked all the more magically. He is a man who has been lifted up by happiness, like not soon a mortal, and yet it has only become part of him again because he knew how to use it, and seems even greater than the merit he earned in the process the calm, cool rejection of presented rule after the first goal of doing a service to the people has been achieved. And none the less, or rather for that very reason, history lifts him up again, and he does not refuse to obey it.

This is one of the most interesting phenomena of recent times, and we cannot refrain from pointing it out to our readers by giving them a picture of Fremont’s effectiveness so far, as far as it has become known through American newspapers.

Fremont is the son of a French émigré, whom the storms of revolution drove from his home, and who, after wandering around many times, found a home in Virginia, where he won the heart of a beautiful young orphan with some fortune. John Charles was born in 1813 as the first son of this marriage. A few years later the father died and the widow moved to Charleston to be able to raise her children better there. John Charles was put into a law firm early on; the abilities which the boy showed there, however, induced his relatives to send him to study at Charleston College.

There he devoted himself primarily to the study of mathematics; but in his sixteenth year love almost put an end to his studies. A beautiful, young, West Indian girl with "raven hair and soft, black eyes" did it to him, and because of her charms he not only forgot to study, but also lost the desire to attend lectures and when the professors taught him about it Made a speech - and he was so bold as to assert his right to be in love, it came to relegation.

It was, of course, a bad event for Fremont; an American youth of sixteen, however, will not be bowed so soon. He left college and settled in Charleston as a math teacher. This activity, as well as the death of his sister and brother, brought him back to more serious views of life; he renounced his young love.

After a few years he got a job as a mathematics teacher on the war sloop "Natchez", with which he made a two and a half year cruise on American waters. This trip awakened his urge to research and he decided to transfer it to the mainland. After he spent a year as an engineer for the Charleston-Cincinnati railroad surveying an untrodden mountain stretch, he joined the French engineer Nicollet who had to explore the area between the Missouri and the British Northwest Frontier. After returning from this voyage, he was appointed second lieutenant in the topographical corps.

While he was working out the trip results with Nicollet in Washington, he became with the Senator's family Benton known, and his second daughter, Jessie, captivated his heart. She returned his love and he wooed her. The parents didn’t want to hear from the poor lieutenant, and he immediately received a government contract to investigate the Moisnes River. He carried it out, but returned to Washington, and renewed his campaign for Jessie Benton so seriously that his parents finally gave in. The connection with the famous statesman naturally furthered his career. After he presented the cabinet with a plan to connect the Mississippi with the calm ocean, he was commissioned to travel to the western border areas along with the "rocky mountains" and left Washington there in May 1842. His traveling party consisted of 21 men, mostly Canadian fur hunters, who were familiar with prairie life, and a German, Prussia, as an assistant engineer.

The hostility of the Indians to the whites often put difficulties in his way; but the firmness with which he met the savages so intimidated that they let him go unhindered. He succeeded in locating the southern pass to the Mexican mountains and climbing the highest peak of the rocky mountains, 13,570 feet above the Gulf of Mexico.

The report he made on his return to Washington contained so much new information, and opened up such a favorable prospect of acquiring the West Coast, that the government immediately decided to send Fremont on a second expedition.

When he left Kansas in 1843, nothing was known about California. The existing maps contained z. B. a river which was supposed to flow into the bay of San Francisco, and which they called Bona-Ventura, but which does not exist at all. Fremont was the first scientific traveler to set foot in these areas.

At the salt lake, where the Mormons now live, there was then a desert, the Sierra Nevada, in which numerous Americans are now settled, a great loneliness in snow and the beautiful valleys of Sacramento and San Joaquin, which are now laughing realms of American culture, were only then inhabited by wild horses, deer and owls. Fremont explored the great valley basin and the "three parks" and determined the course of the three great rivers that originate in the center of the rocky mountains and flow to the east and west.

After returning from this voyage, Fremont was made captain, and at the same time he was commissioned to embark on a third expedition, the purpose of which was to explore the great valley basin and the banks. The closer news Fremont had brought about the country, the more eager Washington became for possession of it.

Fremont moved out for the third time in 1844. After examining the power sources, Fremont hurried across the desert to reach the Sierra Nevada before the onset of winter snow. This was associated with severe privations. The travelers found no water for days and were therefore often exposed to the risk of drowning. Added to this were the dangers brought by the hostile Indians. Fremont had to fight them more than once, and several of his companions were killed in the process. However, he himself defied all dangers and once shot down an Indian who wanted to send the deadly arrow into the heart of one of his friends.

The expedition also lost all beef in the snow masses of the Sierra Nevada, and when Fremont hurried to Monterey on the Pacific Ocean to come to an agreement with the Mexican authorities, dragoons came to him [474] of the governor of the province, General Castro, who brought him his order to leave the country immediately.

Fremont was in dire straits. His expedition needed reinforcement if it was not to perish, and to this was added the insult the Mexican general inflicted on the American nation while Fremont lacked the strength to repel it. Nevertheless, he decided to face this danger too. He declared that the condition of his expedition made it impossible for him to obey orders, and set up camp on a hill near Monterey, which he had fortified.

General Castro advanced against it with troops and cannons and threatened to destroy the Americans, but did not dare to attack. Fremont stood quietly until an embassy from the American consul in Monterey induced him to leave, which he was not prevented from doing.

He turned to Oregon, and soon had the pleasure of meeting two of his former traveling companions, who brought in nine reinforcements. The dispatch from the government which they brought him consisted only of a letter of recommendation from Secretary of State Buchanan, to which was added the verbal mandate to do everything that the inhabitants of the country could gain for the United States.

"That is damned general," said Fremont when he heard this message, "but let's see what can be done."

In May 1846 he came to the Sacramento Thale and found the country in great excitement. General Castro was on the march against the settlers, and the Indians were only waiting for the dry season to attack them and burn down their farms. Juntas had gathered to put the country under British protection and had already given away large stretches of land to the English, a British fleet was expected on the coast and the British Vice Consul Forbes had the reins of power in hand. The war between the United States and Mexico had broken out; Fremont knew nothing of this, however, and he was entirely dependent on his own fist when he began to act. The situation was so critical that swift action was required, and so Fremont immediately resolved to put himself at the head of the movement and declare the Laud independent, in order to save it from the Mexicans. The American settlers rushed from all sides to Fremont’s camp with weapons, horses and ammunition, were formed into battalions and under the banner of the polar bear - as a symbol of the most stubborn resistance - Fremont led them against Castro. This gave way, was beaten, and in thirty days Northern California was free.

Castro fled to the south, Fremont declared the country independent.

During this time the Commodore Sloat, on hearing of Fremont’s appearance in California, had maneuvered a squadron of the American fleet so skillfully that he deceived the English Admiral Seymour about his course and suddenly appeared in front of Monterey. As soon as Fremont heard this, he had the city occupied. But how astonished the commodore was when he heard that Fremont was acting in his own hands. Then things became too dangerous for him, and he first decided to go to Washington to get orders.

He left the squadron there, however, and gave command of it to Commodore Strekton.

The English Admiral Seymour was even more astonished than Sloat was when he found the American fleet in Monterey. The English had always considered the west coast half and half their property, because Drake had entered it and named it Neualbion, and the war between Mexico and the Union seemed to them a fitting opportunity to actually take possession of the land - then saw with horror that the Americans had already gotten ahead of them.

Fremont didn't waste a moment either. He had the stars and stripes drawn up, California belonged to the Union from then on, and the English dared not attack, since such an attack would have drawn them into a war with the United States.

Fremont is therefore the true conqueror of California, and he is certainly one of the most daring in history. After completing this task, however, he immediately showed that he was not concerned with ruling and that he knew something higher than this.

The government of Washington sent him the appointment of lieutenant colonel and he continued the fight of the same with the Mexicans as natural governor of the country, but beside him was also Strekton governor and with the general Kearney, who with the order to conquer California, from Mexico moved in, a third appeared. Both gave him orders, and since these were often contradicting orders, Fremont had to refuse to obey them until it was decided who was in command.

Kearney was so unsatisfied with this that he had Fremont arrested and court-martialed. Fremont developed his valid reasons for this, but a court-martial always judges in the interests of whoever appeals it, and so Fremont also had the pleasure of being condemned by him as a rebel. At the same time, however, it was kind enough to commend him to the mercy of President Polk out of consideration for his patriotism.

Of course, this was also given to him. Polk returned his sword to him, confirmed his position and office, and declared that, although the judgment of the court martial was formally justified, he was entitled to a reward rather than a punishment.

Polk accordingly offered him the post of governor, Fremont refused it, however, preferring to stay in California as a private individual.

It was only after a few years that he was persuaded to join the Union Senate as a representative of the State of California. -

He made the best use of the time he spent in California. He bought so much land there that he became one of the richest people in America, and at the same time wrote an excellent book about his expedition, which earned him the admiration and respect of the entire scientific world, and especially Alex. von Humboldt applauded. It is as rich in new observations and descriptions of nature as it is fascinating in its execution, so that it reads almost like a novel, and has contributed significantly to arouse and increase interest in California.

In political terms, Fremont was until then a supporter of his father-in-law Benton, who was a Democrat in the sense of the Missouri Compromise, i. H. one is who wants slavery to be restricted to the southern region and who rejects the slave-catching law and the Nebraska Bill.

In spite of the kinship with Benton, Fremont did not hesitate to part with Benton and to take the side of the Republicans when it was a question of taking a decisive step for the good of the country.

He realizes that from now on we must fight slavery as a principle.

The Republicans are of course also the opponents of the known-nothing business and want to maintain full freedom of immigration. Thirdly, they reject democracy's lust for annexation because it would be too easily embroiled in a war with Europe. Fremont has also adopted these principles. As bold as he acted for the acquisition of California, when it could be acquired by the strength of the American people, he resolutely rejected all unjust wars of conquest.

With regard to the slave question, he has set out the principle that is obvious to everyone, that the right of free labor requires that no newly acquired territory of the Union be withdrawn from it. It would mean depriving her of the natural fruit of her industry to force her to compete with slave labor and thereby degrade herself to slavery.

If luck now favored Fremont and lifted him to the presidential chair, it would be of inexpressible importance for America's future.

Kansas would be saved for the Free State Principle and legislation on slavery would be expected, which would completely secure the North from it and thus deprive the South of the prospect of ever bringing its principle back to power.

[475] Fremont’s choice would be no less important for Europe, as it would immediately and probably for a long time eliminate the danger that England threatens from a war with America.

Because of this favorable prospect, however, we can hardly hope to see Fremont chosen now. Democracy is still too powerful, both because of its wealth and because of the North's fear of separation from the South, for the Republicans to succeed in overcoming democracy. They certainly hope so, but we cannot share their hope.

If Fremont had to give way now to Buchanan, he would still exist as a man of the future and he would always have an important political role to play, because the Republicans must do everything to prevent Kansas from being made a slave state and easily fall into it War can arise between the north and the south, which in effect would end the union.[2] - "Old Buck" (Buchanan) would of course, once elected, endeavor to remove this danger by seeking to mediate, but things have progressed so far that only mediation is possible which the Democrats are willing to give in to caused.

The Republicans will henceforth dictate their laws to them, and their leader, Fremont, is the man who will shape the future as soon as he follows their demands with the right energy.

The election of the president happens, we want to mention, by electors who represent the electoral votes of the state and, according to the constitution, can be elected partly by the legislation of the individual states, partly by the people, but have recently been elected by the people, so that the election is just as much a direct as an indirect one, because by each choosing the elector according to his party, he also votes for the president, and as soon as the electors are elected, one knows what the result of the election will be. The electors formally meet on the first Wednesday of December and cast their votes in each state, which the congress receives.

If none of the candidates has an absolute majority, the Congress appoints the President and Vice-President according to the majority of the number of votes.

The Union contains 16 free and 15 slave states, and the votes are distributed as follows: 1) Free states: Maine 8, New Hampshire 5, Vermont 5, Massachusets 13, Rhode Island 4, Connecticut 6, New York 35, New Jersey 7, Pennsylvania 27, Ohio 23, Indiana 13, Illinois 11, Michigan 6, Wisconsin 5, Iova 4, California 4, together 176. 2) Slave States: Delaware 3, Maryland 8, Virginia 15, North Carolina 10, South Carolina 8, Georgia 10, Florida 3, Alabama 9, Mississippi 7, Louisiana 6. Texas 4, Tennessee 12, Kentucky 12, Missouri 9, Arkansas 4, together 120. Total 296. 149 votes are therefore required for election. The simple majority of the states decides on the votes of the states. If from New Yorks 35 votes z. B. 20 for Fremont, 8 for Buchanan and 7 for Fillmore, so New-York decided for Fremont. Every elector is required to vote strictly for that (the ballot paper) for which he is elected, and fraud or deception of the primary voters by the electorate is not possible.

Much more could be said about Fremont’s personality. But there are still various judgments which will only be consolidated later. All that is known for sure is that he is a compact, energetic man with a loose beard and a rather Germanic-looking, expressive face, a man of great fondness for German education, speaks German and just as much relies on the Germans as they do, namely the 60,000 gymnasts, on him. One can hope that this time or over four years he will win with the help of them. In this way a real transatlantic Germany is won, all the more so since America can only save itself from wilderness and naked materialism by remembering and re-establishing its original strength and greatness, which lies in the Anglo-Saxon, old Germanic institutions refreshed from this ancient spring. The old Germanic institutions, overgrown by parliamentary acts in England, fled to America and developed there with the power of the jungle. With the primeval forests eradicated by greed and greed, this power also sank and became bare, dry, speculated plains. With its German education and its German army of 60,000 gymnasts, Fremont is a personality and representative of the old Germanic institutions of freedom against speculated, enslaved Yankeeism.


  1. ↑ In one of the later issues we will provide an authentic portrait of this man who is now so important and which is not yet in our hands.
  2. ↑ Even if he is in the minority in the presidential election, he is even more the man of the future, because the free men who have found a head in him then also see how many members and organs belong to it. There are so many and healthy of them that they can confidently secure victory in the next election.