How many types of potatoes are there

Potato varieties in Germany - list of varieties

The range of potatoes offers over 5000 varieties worldwide, which are divided into different ripeness and property groups. These include a large number of commercial varieties that are used to produce starch and alcohol. There are potatoes in the ripening groups very early to early, medium early, medium late and very late. Some potato varieties are only of regional importance or are traded or traded between lovers as so-called "old varieties". Depending on the firmness of the potatoes, a distinction is made between waxy and floury.

Bundessortenamt

In Germany, according to the provisions of the Seed Traffic Act, the planting material may only be marketed from those potato varieties that are recognized and approved by the Federal Plant Variety Office. The list is updated annually and contains both very old and new potato varieties that are grown in Germany.

Differentiation according to types of cook

When choosing the type of potato for table potatoes, the cooking properties or suitability for various dishes are important. For this reason, the cooking properties of a potato are also examined as part of a test. Potatoes are divided into the following categories:

  • Cooking type A: waxy variety
  • Cooking type B: predominantly waxy variety, slightly floury
  • Cooking type C: loose, floury, slightly dry variety

Differentiation according to maturation period

The ripening time not only determines the length of time it takes a potato to ripen, but also the time of harvest and the shelf life of the potato variety. The range of varieties covers growing seasons between 90 and 170 days.

  • Maturity group Ia (very early varieties): vegetation period 90-110 days, harvest in June and July, are pre-germinated under foil, mostly mainly waxy varieties, not storable
  • Maturity group IIa (early varieties): vegetation period 110-130 days, harvest in July and August, are often pre-germinated, mostly waxy and mainly waxy varieties, can only be stored until autumn
  • Maturity group IIIa (medium-early varieties): vegetation period 130-150 days, harvest in August and September, all three cooking types, typical potatoes for cellaring, storable until at least the end of the year
  • Iva ripening group (mid-late to late varieties): vegetation period 150-170 days, harvest in September and October, mostly mainly waxy and floury varieties, cellar possible until the next early summer

Waxy potato varieties

Waxy potato varieties are characterized by the fact that they retain their structure when cooked and do not burst, the cut surface is smooth and moist. Waxy potatoes are suitable for preparation as boiled and jacket potatoes, fried potatoes, gratins, salads, and French fries.

1. Very early maturity group

  • Heidi (approval 2009): long oval tuber shape with yellow, smooth skin and yellow flesh color
  • Salome (2001): oval, shapely tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh, can be stored well when fully ripe

2. Early maturity group

  • Belana (approval 2000): oval tuber, successor to the Linda variety, yellow finely-peeled, yellow flesh color, intense taste
  • Campina (2009): oval tuber with a yellow, smooth skin, yellow flesh color
  • Cilena (1981): elongated tuber shape, yellow skin and yellow flesh, one of the most popular potatoes, easy to store
  • Goldmarie (2013): long oval tuber, deep yellow flesh color
  • Renate (1993): oval tuber shape, yellow skin with yellow flesh
  • Venezia (2009): long oval tuber with a very smooth yellow skin, deep yellow flesh color

3. Mid-early ripening group

  • Ditta (approval 1991): high yield, long oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh
  • Nicola (1973): high yield, long oval tuber, yellow skin and light yellow flesh
  • Selma (1972): long oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow meat

Predominantly waxy

All potatoes described as predominantly waxy develop a medium firmness when cooked, which hardly offers any resistance when mashed with a fork. The peel of these types of potatoes does not crack open when cooked and their flesh appears fine-grained and only slightly floury. Predominantly waxy potatoes are ideal in the kitchen for preparation as boiled and jacket potatoes, for stews and casseroles, soups, pancakes or hash browns.

1. Very early maturity group:
  • Arkula (approval 1975): round oval tuber, yellow skin and light yellow pulp
  • Berber (1983): oval tuber, yellow skin with light yellow flesh
  • Christa (1975): long oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh
  • Leyla (1988): oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh color
  • Rosara (1990): long oval tuber, red skin and yellow flesh

2. Early ripening period

  • Marabel (approved in 1993): oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow meat


3. Mid-early ripening period

  • Agria (approval 1985): oval tuber shape, yellow skin and meat
  • Désirée (1962): red skin with light yellow flesh
  • Granola (1975): round oval shape, yellow skin and yellow flesh
  • Quarta (1979): oval tuber, yellow skin with red eyes, yellow flesh
  • Satina (1993): round oval tuber, yellow skin and light yellow flesh
  • Secura (1985): oval tuber, yellow skin and flesh color
  • Solara (1989): oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh

4. Medium to very late ripening period

  • Cascada (approval 2009): very high yield, oval tuber with yellow, smooth skin, yellow flesh
  • Donella (1990): lots of regular oval tubers, yellow skin and yellow flesh
  • Sanira (1992): long oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh color

Floury potatoes

1. Early ripening period

  • Karlena (1988): round oval tuber, ocher-colored skin, light yellow flesh

2. Medium-early ripening period

  • Adretta (approval 1975): round tuber, yellow skin and light yellow flesh, lightly floury to slightly dry
  • Amanda (2006): oval tuber with yellow skin, light yellow flesh color
  • Freya (1998): oval tuber, yellow, only lightly moistened skin and yellow flesh color, floury and slightly dry
  • Likaria (1986): oval tuber, yellow skin and light yellow flesh, lightly floury and slightly dry

3. Mid-late to late ripening period

  • Pheasant (approval 1997): round oval, medium-sized tuber with rough, light yellow skin, light yellow flesh color
  • Saturna (1970): round oval tuber, yellow skin and yellow flesh, lightly floury and slightly dry
  • Troy (2010): high yields, yellow skin and yellow flesh

Blue and red potatoes

For potato lovers, blue or red potatoes can often be found on the market or as planting material, even in smaller quantities. So-called anthocyanins, which have health-promoting aspects, are responsible for the color

can be attributed.

Red potato varieties
  • Heiderot new breed (2013): Country of origin Germany, long oval tuber, red skin and red meat, ripening time medium early, waxy, buttery taste
  • Highland Red Burgundy (Red Cardinal): Country of origin England (1902), floury cooking, oval tuber, medium late, strong taste
  • Rosemarie (2004): Country of origin Germany, ripening time medium early, very long oval tuber, pink skin and pink meat, creamy, slightly greasy consistency, waxy

Blue potato varieties

  • Blue Anneliese (2004): Country of origin Germany, blue skin, purple meat, round oval tuber, ripening time medium early, waxy, strong taste
  • Blue Bamberg croissants (very rare): country of origin Germany, ripening time late, slim croissant shape, blue skin and reddish-blue-white colored meat, waxy, good taste
  • Blauer Schwede: country of origin unknown, oval tuber, black-violet skin and white-violet meat, floury cooking

Conservation varieties

Old varieties that are of particular importance are called conservation varieties at the Bundessortenamt. Some potato varieties are not economical enough for industrial, large-scale cultivation because they may not achieve high yields, are sensitive to processing or are susceptible to various diseases that a monoculture entails. Since certain types of potatoes are very popular because of their good taste, small farmers, organic farmers and hobby gardeners continue to cultivate them in small numbers in their own gardens. These include:

  • Ackersegen (1929): Classic among the floury potatoes, country of origin Germany, ripening time very late, round oval tuber, ocher-colored skin and yellow meat, strong spicy taste
  • Bamberger Hörnchen (approx. 1870): croissant-shaped tuber, ripening late, yellow-pink skin and yellow meat, waxy, very good taste

New varieties

Several new varieties of potatoes are brought onto the market every year.

  • SF Balu (2014): Ripening time early, predominantly waxy, long-oval tuber, red skin and yellow flesh
  • Torenia (2012): Ripening time medium early, waxy, long oval tuber, yellow reticulated skin, yellow flesh
  • Wega (2010): Ripening time early, predominantly waxy, oval tuber, yellow skin and deep yellow flesh color
  • Wendy (2011): Ripening time medium early, predominantly waxy, oval tuber with yellow skin and yellow flesh

Conclusion

There is an incredibly large selection of table potatoes in Germany. To help consumers find their way around, the individual varieties are divided into waxy, predominantly waxy and floury based on their cooking properties. The ripening time, i.e. when a potato can be harvested, provides information about when it will be offered on the market. In addition, the time of harvest is important for the suitability for storage. The earlier a potato variety is harvested, the shorter it can be stored. A cellar over the entire winter is only possible for late harvested varieties.