What was CS Lewis' criticism of the science field

The property of late Dr. Johanna Monschein. An insight into the estate

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2 Contents editorial 3 Working group on historical children's book research Brigitte Semanek / Li Gerhalter: for a [] individual [] a fairly extensive work The personal estate of Johanna Monschein in the Gunda Mairbäurl women's estate collection: The Property of late Dr. Johanna Monschein. An insight into the estate of Monschein Sonja M. Schreiner: Post-war Vienna in girls' books using the example of Helene Weilen's Vroneli Sarolta Lipóczi: Historical children's books in Hungary within the Habsburg monarchy Elisabeth Klecker: Children's literature in Latin? Symposium on Tove Jansson () Birgit Dankert: Moomin's long journey through the history of fantastic children's and youth literature. A Vienna symposium tears down fences 17

3 Sonja Loidl: The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings. Tove Jansson's contribution to children's literary myth translation. Vienna Symposium on Fantasy and Fantasticism Abstracts of the presentations and short biographies of the speakers Obituaries Heinrich Pleticha () Adelheid Dahimène () Abstracts of the award-winning diploma theses Julia Hörtenhuemer: Medieval Reception in the KJL. Shown as an example in the depiction of heroes by Cornelia Funke. Dipl. Arb. Salzburg 2010 Kerstin Istvanits: The youth novels by Szabó Magda: Álarcosbál (Masked Ball) and Abigél (Abigail). Dipl. Arb. Vienna 2010 Barbara Mayerhofer-Sebera: Body Spaces in Youth Literature. Locations of adolescence crises. Dipl. Arb. Vienna 2010 Emmerich Mazakarini: Serial phenomena in Austrian children's and youth literature. Dipl. Arb. Vienna Reviews Günter Lange (ed.): Children's and youth literature of the present. A manual. Schneider Verlag: Hohengehren 2010, 544 pages (Jana Mikota) Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer / Thomas Koebner (eds.): Film genres. Children's and youth films. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 2010, 368 pages (Ines Wagner) Contributors 65

4 Editorial In the foreground of the annual meeting of the Working Group for Historical Children's Book Research, convened for the third time in cooperation with the Institute for Cultural Studies and Theater History at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, on November 11, 2010, the estate of Johanna Monschein 1. The estate administrator, Gabriele Calice , has decided to hand this fund over to the ÖG-KJLF, a task that we have taken on with great joy and gratitude. After several consultations, not least with regard to the rather meager spatial resources, the personal part of this estate is now in the collection of women's estates at the Institute for History of the University of Vienna, the scientific part, the documents on children's book research, are in the ÖG- KJLF housed. The presentations by Brigitte Semanek, Li Gerhalter and Gunda Mairbäurl reflect this division of scholarly work, whereby, with repeated thanks to Gabriele Calice, it should be emphasized that the ÖG-KJLF also acquired the secondary literature acquired from Johanna Monschein, a fund of over 70 works of mostly rare and valuable special literature , was allowed to take over. The three following presentations from the working group, which are reproduced here in abbreviated form, explore further research areas, Sarolta Lipóczi and Sonja Schreiner in continuation of previous investigations and Elisabeth Klecker for the first time in this area with a fascinating approach to KJL from the perspective of classical philology. At the invitation of the Finnish Embassy in Austria, this year's symposium of the ÖG-KJLF was dedicated to the Swedish-Finnish children's book author Tove Jansson (), who not only spoke to her two English writer colleagues C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien has multiple relationships, but, as it became clear in the course of the conference, also to Austria and especially to representatives of the kj literary situation of the 1960s. The symposium, the results of which will be published in a separate volume of our series, is summarized in the second part of this issue by the two contributions by Birgit Dankert and Sonja Loidl and supplemented by abstracts and short biographies of the contributors. With the following part we fulfill the sad task of commemorating two personalities who died in the previous year and with whom we will go through

5 Gunda Mairbäurl / Ernst Seibert, Heinrich Pleticha, one of the great old men who in Germany has rendered unforgettable services both to children's book research and the validity of children's books, and Adelheid Dahimène, the Austrian author who worked in the has shown many times over the last few years that literature for children and young people can be part of the literary avant-garde, and which, completely unexpectedly, is no longer there. We would like to refer to another obituary at this point: Elisabeth Klecker has an obituary in biblos about Brigitte Mersich, who worked with us as part of the historical research group for children's and young people's books. Contributions to books, libraries and writing (published by the Austrian National Library, 2/2010, S). As we have done since the beginning of our activity, we have awarded prizes for scientific work on the KJLF on behalf of the BMUKK, this time during the annual symposium in a particularly festive setting in the premises of the Finnish Embassy in Vienna. The abstracts for the award-winning works follow as a fourth, and as a fifth part, reviews of new publications in children's book research. February 2011 Gunda Mairbäurl (Red.) Ernst Seibert (Ed.) 1 memorandum on the occasion of the symposium The Aesthetics of the Unfinished. In memoriam of the children's book collector Johanna Monschein in the oratorio of the Austrian National Library on June 1st, edited by Susanne Blumesberger, Ernst Seibert and Edith Stumpf-Fischer; Red .: Gunda Mairbäurl (= libri liberorum, special issue June 2007) 4 libri liberorum 37/2011

6 for a [] individual [] a fairly extensive work The personal estate of Johanna Monschein in the collection of women's estates Brigitte Semanek and Li Gerhalter The very extensive personal estate of Dr. Johanna Theresia Wilhelmine Karl Monschein 1 comprises a total of roughly documents that cover her entire lifetime, i.e. nine decades. The earliest document is a portrait of Hansi at the age of 13 months, the earliest surviving document is a school message from the 2nd class of the St. Augustin secondary school in Sarajevo (where the family lived from 1911 to 1919) from The correspondence received ends in March 1997, i.e. two months before your Excellency's death. In addition to the large period of time, the stock also has an extraordinary geographical latitude. The internationality of the life stations as well as the personal and professional networks of Johanna Monschein is reflected in the numerous places where the documents were written: Here at least 40 writing locations in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, France, Bosnia and Israel are identified by name. Johanna Monschein partially sorted her estate herself. The order of the documents was specified by Dr. in Edith Stumpf-Fischer, the biographer Johanna Monscheins, 2 and Gabriele Calice, who secured the holdings and donated them to the collection of women's legacies at the Institute for History at the University of Vienna in 2010. Finally, the documents were systematically recorded here, and limited scientific use is possible within the framework of data protection regulations. 3 Baptismal certificate, fashion drawing, medal awarding: The diverse genres in Johanna Monschein's estate According to its size, the holdings include documents of various genres: Numerous official documents such as birth certificates, baptism certificates and homeland certificates

7 Brigitte Semanek and Li Gerhalter and examination certificates from the Law Faculty of the University of Vienna from 1927 to 1932 prove Johanna Monschein's family background or her training as a lawyer. As already described, the stock of photographs also goes back to her childhood, it also includes portraits and snapshots as well as recordings from official appointments. Last but not least, the photographs show her personal interests in automobiles, cats, porcelain or in making hats. Their interest in fashion is also evidenced by detailed fashion drawings. Her large social network from Johanna Monschein's time as a diplomat in Geneva and Oslo is documented in three guest books from 1953 to professional as well as private correspondence or mixed forms of it. The letters addressed to Johanna Monschein were written by around 200 correspondents: members of the government and diplomats, her family and friends, such as Emma Wernli, with whom she corresponded for decades. The fact that both sides of most of the correspondence are available - the letters from Johanna Monschein are available in the form of carbon copies - is to be regarded as extraordinary for a personal estate. Focus on children's book research in the estate of Johanna Monschein Johanna Monschein's scientific estate was taken over by the Austrian Society for Children's and Young People's Literature Research (ÖG-KJLF). In the collection of women's estates, her work is documented by a collection of newspaper clippings that she herself compiled about the children's book exhibition she designed in 1979 in the Austrian National Library. The main part is the extensive correspondence, which contains, for example, correspondence with Hans Ries, Theodor Brüggemann or Ernst Seibert, as well as with the publishers Ernst Hauswedell, Residenz, Ueberreuter and Christian Brandstätter, with the Austrian National Library, the International Youth Library in Munich, international antiquarian bookshops or the Federal Ministry of Science and Research regarding the research assignment for children's, youth and educational books from the Franz I library .. Often the letters are accompanied by sticky notes, typewritten lists and newspaper clippings or entire magazine editions, e.g. from the children's literature magazine Volkacher Bote, many letterheads also contain handwritten work notes. The letters document the scientific exchange of the children's book researcher as well as the production conditions: I think it is wonderful and very thankful for all those interested that your Excellency is continuing to work so intensively on the catalog of the children's book collection, wrote Adolf Seebass to Johanna Monschein in June 1977. 5 It is quite a 6 libri liberorum 37/2011 for an individual

8 Working group on historical children's book research extensive work 6 she herself stated in a letter in September 1977: my children's books have now actually taken on the dimension of full employment, 7 Notes 1 See copy of the birth certificate from December 16 Documents from the personal estate of Johanna Monschein were ( among other things) Foundations for the biography of Edith Stumpf-Fischer, One is always alone ... Johanna Monschein (). Diplomat and researcher. Vienna The diary collection is currently blocked for use. 4 Adolf Seebaß (Erasmushaus Haus der Bücher AG Basel) to Johanna Monschein, June 13th Johanna Monschein to an unknown address, September 7th Johanna Monschein to an unknown address, July 3rd The Property of late Dr. Johanna Monschein. An insight into the Monschein Gunda Mairbäurl estate J ohanna Monschein is considered to be the founder of historical children's book research in Austria. Her children's book collection, which comprised several thousand volumes and focused on the 19th century, was not included in the holdings of the National Library, as originally planned, but was auctioned at Sotheby s at her request. The auction that took place on May 7, 1998 is valued in different ways. Ernst Seibert expresses his regret and regards the tearing apart as a loss for the Austrian children's book scene. Friedrich C. Heller, on the other hand, sees more of a danger when collections are incorporated into libraries, because they can disappear into them, while auctioned (individual) copies fall into the hands of lovers (and / or business people) who appreciate the individual work. The Monschein estate has been part of the women's estate collection at the Institute for History at the University of Vienna since 2010. 1 The part that documents her work as a children's book researcher and is therefore of interest to Austrian KJL research was given to the ÖG-KJLF. The viewing of these holdings is accompanied by two basic considerations: (1) the desire to reconstruct the Monschein collection and (2) through this up to libri liberorum 37/2011 7

9 Gunda Mairbäurl to discover or rediscover Austrian children's books not yet known / noticed. The typescripts The holdings handed over to the ÖG-KJLF contain, among other things. a box with typescripts and a box with a folder and a folder of the fair copies of these typescripts. These alphabetically arranged typescripts provide the basis for the book Children and Youth Books of the Enlightenment, published in 1997 by Residenzverlag. From the collection of Emperor Franz I of Austria in the Fideikommissbibliothek at the Austrian National Library, which only received minor corrections. (Fig. 1) The Sotheby's catalog Fig. 1: Johanna Monschein: Children's books of the Enlightenment Fig. 2: Sotheby's 1998 catalog The Sotheby's catalog (Fig. 2), which is also available in this collection of the ÖG-KJLF (Fig. 2), is listed under the heading The property of the late Dr. Johanna Monschein from page 41 under the numbers Johanna Monschein's children's books. Only a few of the books are listed as individual titles, the majority are summarized in blocks of several books, with only a few titles being named. The number of books is given either at the end in brackets or in the accompanying text (Fig. 3). The collection is divided into several subdivisions: Nr: English Books Nr: French Books a) Alphabets b) Bindings Nr German Books a) Alphabets b) Bindings c) Moving Picture Books Nr. 281 Reference Library 8 libri liberorum 37/2011

10 Historical Children's Book Research Working Group After adding up the numbers given, there are a total of approx children's books and 245 works on secondary literature, of which only a few titles are listed, but indicated that they are rare books. The astonishment that the books listed in the catalog are also physically present in the estate made Dr. Calice, the estate manager of the Monschein Collection, explained at the conference on historical children's and young people's literature on November 11, 2010: The listed titles were not auctioned at all, they were simply forgotten, remained on the shelf and therefore included in the estate. The card index The card index contains alphabetically arranged cards with book titles and three wrapped packages, including: with the inscriptions Robinsonades and ABC books (Fig. 4). This type of storage is reflected in the exhibition European Children's Books from the 15th to the 19th Century in the State Hall of the National Library in 1979, in which the books were presented chronologically, only the Robinsonades and ABC books were presented as a separate section. The book titles, arranged alphabetically by author, also include name cards with the names of exclusively French illustrators, copper engravers and other visual artists, often with details of the sources of the find. The question of whether the card index is identical to the Sotheby s catalog is difficult to answer because Sotheby s only lists a few titles. Two examples: (1) Monschein lists five titles by Aurelie, Fig. 3: Sotheby's catalog: number of books Fig. 4: Monschein card catalog: bundled index cards libri liberorum 37/2011 9

11 Gunda Mairbäurl Fig. 5: Card catalog Monschein: Bertuch in four languages ​​(Latin, Hungarian, German, French) Fig. 6: Sotheby's catalog: Bertuch bilingual (French, German) while Sotheby's only lists two; the other three could not be named among the others cited, but only as a total of the books must be hidden. (2) Monschein has listed a first volume in four languages ​​of an edition of the picture book for the youth by Friedrich Justin Bertuch printed in Vienna (Fig. 5), but it cannot be found in the catalog (Fig. 6). This leads to the question of whether the card index is the bibliography of your collection or a general bibliography of children's literary works. If there is a Bi- 10 libri liberorum 37/2011

12 Working Group on Historical Children's Book Research is the biography of their collection, then the four-language Bertuch was either not auctioned off at Sotheby's (Bertuch is so valuable that it is listed as a single title) or it is hidden there as well in the note that the edition is complete, but made up of various Editions is thrown together, and the treasure of the four-language volume (German, French, Lat., Hungarian) among the otherwise two-volume (German, French) was not discovered or was considered to be negligible. Publishing location Vienna So back to the Sotheby s catalog and searching for books with the publishing location Vienna. Eight titles could be found: No.: German Books Alphabets No. 260 F. J. Bertuch: Picture book for the youth, French-German, Vienna: Pichler; B.P. Farmer Bindings No. 261 Aurelie: Elisabeths Mußestunden, a book for instructive entertainment for adolescent girls. Vienna 1870 Aurelie: Elisabeth album. Vienna No. 263 J. H. Campe: Klugheitslehren, Vienna No. 264 Dr.Franz Hermann Czech: Versinnlichte Denk- und Sprachlehre Wien, Mechitaristen No. 265 Gerlachs Jugendbücherei, Vienna and Leipzig, (taken over by Dt. Verlag für Jugend & Volk) Moving Picture Books No. 276 Scene of creation in natural historical alphabets. Vienna J: Riedl No. 278 Sunday paper for young people for reward and encouragement, Vienna: Anton Strauss No. 265 Gerlach's books for young people should be selected as an Austrian example. A detailed note in the catalog refers to the complete set of 34 volumes in 32 books, attests to a seldom good state of preservation and indicates that the series was later taken over by the German publishing house Jugend und Volk without giving the year. Furthermore, illustrators who are important for the Art Nouveau style are pointed out and expressly emphasized that all artists are Austrian: Taschner, Fahringer, Löffler, Steiner, Czeschka, Liebenauer and Staeger, especially Czeschka. (Catalog p. 54, number 265). This note, which is important for Austrian children's books and the history of the publishing house, is already in F.C. Heller's 2009 manual on the artistic libri liberorum 37 /

13 Gunda Mairbäurl illustrated children's book in Vienna The colorful world described and documented (p. 31ff). Conclusion The following results from this first inspection: The Sotheby s catalog lists eight books from Austrian publishers with titles; seven of them are in the national library in other requirements. However, this means that the card catalog must be systematically searched and any finds checked for existence in the university library, the national library or the Vienna library. Only then can it be determined whether something new is to be recorded and researched. An important question for research is whether Johanna Monschein's 1979 exhibition catalog and the 1997 publication by Residenzverlag list all children's literary holdings in the Fideikommiss library or whether the Fideikommiss library contains even more previously undiscovered children's books. Research projects at the national library, but also at the university library for the systematic indexing of historical holdings, could perhaps unearth further treasures in children's books and thus continue Johanna Monschein's work. Note 1 Collection of women's legacies, Institute for History of the University of Vienna, Dr. Karl Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Vienna, Tel.: [0043] [0] or [0043] [0] univie.ac.at 12 libri liberorum 37/2011

14 Working Group on Historical Children's Book Research Post-war Vienna in girls' books using the example of Helene Weilen's Vroneli Sonja M. Schreiner Veronika Schindler grew up with Swiss foster parents during the Second World War and in the first post-war years. The birth father is missing, the mother has been believed to be dead since a heavy bombing raid. Veronika from Vienna, who was evacuated from the Red Cross as a malnourished baby, has become the cheerful Vroneli, a girl in early teenage who has no conscious memory of his or her parents has original home. But the mother is alive, has regained her memory after years of amnesia and henceforth puts all of her (newly gained) energy into the return of her daughter, not considering the emotional conflict she brings her beloved child into, to whom she has not shown her affection for a long time will be able to show. With a heavy heart, the (foster) parents let Vroneli go. In her book, published in 1953, Helene Weilen tells in an oppressively realistic way the fate of a young person who has been uprooted in several ways, creates a portrait of a woman who has become hard and aloof through the war and describes the slow path between mother and daughter. Farewells, friendships, the clash of two worlds (Switzerland, outwardly unscathed by the war, and Austria, which was badly affected by the immediate start of reconstruction), the conflicts that arose in the everyday life of a perfectly normal girl of this time, and the forced new beginning in the old homeland, which is perceived as a stranger, shape the book. Geographical indications are omitted - they are only present over distances (and overcoming them with great privation), through different language coloring, which leads to communication difficulties, and through considerably deviating standards of living. The key to the happy ending is ultimately the father, who is one of the last returning from the war to become a soul mate Vronelis, as neither of them have really arrived home yet. Vroneli is a difficult book but an important one. When it was published, it was likely to have been a kind of (survival) help for many girls, a piece of advice literature for young women in comparable situations who could draw hope for their own future from the happiness their heroine ultimately received. Today, almost six decades later, it can contribute to a better understanding of mothers or grandmothers, depending on the generation of the reader. libri liberorum

15 Sonja M. Schreiner / Sarolta Lipóczi / Elisabeth Klecker Historical Children's Books in Hungary - within the Habsburg Monarchy Sarolta Lipóczi The bibliographical volume by Pál Drescher Régi magyar gyermekkönyvek (German: Old Hungarian Children's Books), published by the Hungarian Society, provides an overview of the Hungarian historical children's books for Bibliophilia, Budapest, 1934, as a very good source. According to the information in this book, exactly 67 Hungarian-language and 268 non-Hungarian-language children's books were published in Hungary in the Habsburg Monarchy by 1711. After this time, the number of Hungarian children's books continued to increase: from 1711 to 1860 529 and from 1861 to 1875 a total of 466 children's books were published. Using book examples, one can demonstrate the cultural-historical and educational effects of the respective age on these children's books. Particular attention should be paid to the books that have been received in both Austria and Hungary, such as the children's books by the philanthropic writer Jakob Glatz that can be found in the Vienna City Hall Library. The large number of books also includes numerous German-language titles. Of the 33 books by Jakob Glatz that are included in the bibliography, there are only six Hungarian translations. The others are German-language editions, published either in Hungary, Germany or Austria. Pál Drescher also counted some German-language works among the Hungarian children's books, which was not surprising at the time. In the multilingual Habsburg Monarchy, German was an important language of cultural and scientific life for the Hungarian aristocrats up to the middle of the 19th century. Even the author of the first Hungarian children's book, Amália Bezerédj (), wrote her first works in German. Several Hungarian historical children's books are based on German-language sources known in the Habsburg Monarchy. Most of the books included in the bibliography can be found in the Széchenyi National Library of the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest. 14 libri liberorum 37/2011

16 Historical Children's Book Research Working Group Children's literature in Latin? Elisabeth Klecker If one tries to determine the possible contribution of neo-Latin studies to historical research on children's and young people's literature, this is not possible without the fundamental question of the role of Latin in the (early) modern era. Two recent works on the history of the Latin language can be taken as a starting point: Jürgen Leonhardt (Latin. History of a World Language. Munich 2009) pursues the concept of fixed historical cultural language and accordingly deals with the development of language teaching, language practice and competence. Françoise Waquet (Le latin ou l empire d un signe: XVI e XX e siècle. Paris 1999; English translation 2001) puts the focus on the level of symbolic communication and emphasizes the elite-forming effect of Latin as power to say and to conceal. The importance of Latin speech as a cultural technique to be learned, as a basic skill that could be differentiated according to occupation, means that Latin literature for the age group of children is primarily male from around seven years in a (in the broadest sense) school context is to be located and reception under supervision, hardly meant independent reading for entertainment. The teaching objective, the introduction to the active oral and written use of Latin according to ancient models, allows the main works of Roman literature to become popular children's and youth literature even before one's own teaching works: In this sense, Virgil's Aeneid can be considered one of the most important children's books of the early modern period denote especially since the epic could be read in a widespread allegorical understanding as a picture of the human journey through life. Basically, the communication of linguistic norms, based on an authoritative canon of authors, is always closely intertwined with the respective social norms; Language skills are passed on through texts that at the same time pass on specific values ​​and create an identity, an aspect that can of course apply to children's literature in general. This double function is evident in the type of text used in the student conversations: geared towards active speech training, they offer sample dialogues for standard situations, they serve to practice idiomatic expressions and to expand the vocabulary in simple syntactic patterns. Their basic concept hardly differs from modern language textbooks. At the same time, however, they convey instructions on good behavior and represent educational pamphlets in a comprehensive sense. Examples are the conversations (Exercitatio linguae Latinae sive Colloquia) of the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives (Valencia 1492 Bruges 1540), the situations in the course of the day, such as on the way to school (Euntes ad ludum litterarium), replay with everyday phrases, libri liberorum

17 Sonja M. Schreiner / Sarolta Lipóczi / Elisabeth Klecker also demonstrate behavioral patterns. The concluding dialogue takes account of the dedication to the son of Charles V, who later became Philip II (20 Princeps puer): The constellation Philip between Morobulus, the foolish advisor who wants to seduce people, and the wise Sophobulus becomes a parenesis to study and a prince mirror in a nutshell. The design of short dramatic scenes with a tendency to literarise results in a smooth transition to school drama, an extremely productive area, in which, however, despite its anchoring in the classroom, it becomes clear how problematic the classification of Latin texts as children's literature can be: performances often took place in the presence of higher ones Secular and ecclesiastical dignitaries took place in the context of court celebrations, so that a non-uniform group of spectators (and, in the case of pressure, later readers) had to be planned. This can be exemplified by the Voluptatis cum virtute disceptatio (dispute between lust and virtue) by Benedictus Chelidonius (approx. Nuremberg 1521 Vienna), which was performed by students in the Schottenkloster in Mardi Gras in 1515: Maximilian's granddaughter Maria (née) was in the audience. whose presence in Vienna provided the occasion for the game, but also Maximilian's leading, humanistically educated diplomat Cardinal Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg. The main role of Maria's brother Karl (born) as referee in the competition between virtue and vice was the son of Count Niklas Salm, who was probably about the same age as the later defender of the city during the Turkish siege in 1529. The simple Latin of the speaking parts (undoubtedly rehearsed with the teacher) is adapted to the performative reception by actors of school age, but also suits a not too well-versed court audience, with German act prologues additionally ensuring understanding and the stage action (e.g. fighting and beating scenes) provides language-independent entertainment; higher demands were satisfied with choral songs in oden form. Consideration for the child's imperial granddaughter and the primary addressee was certainly required, but the drama can only be described as a children's play from a modern perspective: Maria had traveled to Vienna for the wedding with Ludwig of Hungary and was thus about to enter adulthood. The same applies to the protagonist: Charles was declared of age by Emperor Maximilian in 1515. The ideal of virtue of the present court society of all age groups is brought onto the stage, an ideal to which Maria and Karl are already committed by their birth and which they will actively realize from now on. 16 libri liberorum 37/2011

18 Moomin's long journey through the history of fantastic children's and youth literature. A Viennese symposium tears down fences Birgit Dankert If you imagine the potential readers, also known as target groups for marketing purposes, of Tove Jansson's Moomin books and J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings, they seem to have little in common: here already preschoolers and in adolescence or adulthood more introverted pacifist nature lovers with a penchant for psycho-analysis, there action-loving all-agers from 14 years of age with more martial notions of Adventure and conflict resolution. For C.S.Lewis Narnia volumes, too, there is a very special clientele in mind: a readership oriented towards classic Anglo-Saxon children's literature, who are trained in a conservative worldview with a traditional arsenal of myths and legends and fairy tales. But with these definitions, with fences that literary scholars and literary mediating professions have drawn in order to be able to better distinguish and judge more purposefully, the symposium cleared The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings. Tove Jansson's contribution to children's literary myth translation on April 29th, organized by the Austrian Society for Research on Children's and Young People's Literature Vienna (ÖG-KJLF). It all began with Marco Prestel's revealing overview, Wonderful Confusion, which placed different theories on fantastic children's and youth literature next to, against and behind one another. Internationally and variedly, materials, testimonials and findings from the fields of history, literature, comparative literature, language, psycho-analysis, gender and culture were brought together. The gratifyingly numerous research approaches gave, in addition to the content-related statements, insights into the concept of science of the federal states and universities that were represented in Vienna. Then came the specialist scientist like Rudy Simek, who devoted himself for this lecture to the subject of children's and youth literature, which is otherwise not the focus of his research. It was spoken by the young generation of lecturers such as Saskia Heber and Jana Mikota, for whom children's books are a legitimate research object in their scientific discipline

19 Birgit Dankert is. The statements by Mareike Jendis from Sweden and Tatjana Fedjaewa from Russia documented the preferred focus depending on the state of national children's literature research. Seasoned connoisseurs and cultural managers of children's and youth literature such as Andreas Bode and Christine Lötscher devoted themselves to important details of the history of the edition and iconography against the background of the overall production of fantastic children's literature. Anyone who, like Sylvia Zwettler-Otte and Rüdiger Steinlein, has devoted an entire researcher's life to children's and youth literature, has also been able to prove here that sustainable knowledge can confidently withstand the change in research directions and changes in reception behavior. Those who, like the organizers Ernst Seibert and Gunda Mairbäurl from the Austrian Society for Children's and Youth Literature Research, had committed themselves to diversity and heterogeneity as values ​​appropriate to the topic, were fully confirmed by the results. There will be no overall view, no uniform theory for this most special, most vital and most diverse literary branch of children's and youth literature in the future either. Those who had the privilege of following the entire, well-organized symposium, had their eyes and ears opened for at least two new questions: - if all historical references, all motifs and comparisons of fantastic children's and youth literature, fantasy, the utopian political thrillers are on the table and give rise to comparisons, what is the next step? Was the collection of material suitable for determining quality, a surrogate for the definition of literary values? - So far, fantastic texts have been kept free of socio-ethical and ideological evaluations with an agreement that the genre is not binding. But don't the diverse insights into the cultural, linguistic and compositional framework of all varieties of fantastic literature also evoke the question of the character and integrity of the ideologies and world views sublimated in literature? Moomin's long journey, which found such a fruitful interruption with an exhibition and symposium in the pre-Christmas Vienna in the main library of the Vienna City Libraries, is far from over. 18 libri liberorum 37/2011

20 The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings. Tove Jansson's contribution to children's literary myth translation Vienna Symposium on Fantasy and Fantasticism Sonja Loidl At the end of November, Jansson's Moomin texts, C.S. Lewis Chronicles of Narnia Series and J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy The Lord of the Rings discussed. The occasion there was the exhibition Floating Dreams Life. Tove Jansson's Moomin stories, Jansson's stories about the three-headed fantasy family, etc.with the help of a hand puppet theater, relief images, a walk-in Moomin house, also made tangible. In addition to the literary studies German, English, Slavonic and Scandinavian studies, the cultural and human sciences history, medieval studies, philosophy and psychology were also represented in research areas. The Austrian Society for Children's and Youth Literature Research (ÖG-KJLF) as the organizer was able to welcome speakers from Austria, Germany and Switzerland as well as colleagues from Sweden and St. Petersburg. The starting point in terms of content was, as can easily be seen from the title of the conference, three examples of non-realistic children's and youth literature from the post-war period. As regards the central texts, Tove Jansson () was a member of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, where she worked as a writer, illustrator, comic author and graphic artist , Painter and illustrator. By playing with elements of the Nordic world of legends and myths, your Moomin books paved the way for a decisive change in children's and youth literature. Although Tove Jansson's stories about the Moomins are perhaps surpassed by other characters in their popularity in this country, the author has had a very long-term impact on a genre with her fantastic novels. The Moomin series consists of the following texts: 1. Moomin's long journey (Småtrollen och den stora översvämningen, 1945) 2. Komet im Moomin (Kometen kommer, 1946) 3. A funny company (Trollkarlens hatt, 1948) 4. Moominfather's wild youth (Muminpappans memoarer, 1950) 5. Storm in the Mumintal (Farlig midsommar, 1954) 6. Winter in the Mumintal (Trollvinter, 1957) libri liberorum 37 /

21 Sonja Loidl 7. Stories from the Moomin Valley (Det osynliga barnet, 1963) 8. Moomin's miraculous island adventures (Pappan och havet, 1965) 9. Autumn in the Moomin Valley (Sent i november, 1970) With regard to the Moomin material, the author was on his Implementation as a media network system (for example in the form of plays, board games, comics, etc.) significantly involved. In the course of the conference one limited oneself to an examination of the books, which Jansson also illustrated himself. In her work as an illustrator one can also find the connection between Tove Jansson and J.R.R. Tolkien. Because Jansson illustrated an early Finnish translation of The Little Hobbit. The original of this book was first published in 1937 and, in contemporary terms, represents the prequel to The Lord of the Rings. How Harry Potter by J.K. Rowling or the Eragon series by Christopher Paolini nowadays, that's how J.R.R. Tolkien's novel not in its entirety, but rather The Companions, The Two Towers and The Return of the King as volumes 1, 2 and 3 were published in 1954 and 1955. During the creation of the actual narrative text, the author had already worked on the history and the mythical background of the creation and development of Middle-earth. His productivity in this regard stands in clear contrast to Tolkien's scientific publications, which, in spite of a long career as a professor at Oxford, amount to only one co-authorship and eight essays, according to Rudolf Simek in his lecture. One possible form of the outcome of Tolkien's writing is available today in The Silmarillion. One possible form because the text was edited by Tolkien's son Christopher from the author's estate. In any case, this text represents the history and at the same time the creation myth of the world created by the author. It offers a rich treasure trove for mythical motifs and the implementation of constellations of the older Nordic poetry, which of course also find their way into The Lord of the Rings. This makes Tolkien's text an ideal example of the translation of myths as examined in the symposium. Between J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis can be shown to have a more far-reaching relationship than that between Jansson and Tolkien: On the one hand, both were members of the so-called Inklings, a literary circle to which Charles Williams belonged. The group's meeting place, the Oxford pub The Eagle and Child, is now one of the many attractions visited by enthusiastic readers who want to follow in the footsteps of the authors. Like Tolkien, Lewis was a university professor in later years. He taught Medieval and Renaissance English Literature at Cambridge, while Tolkien held the Chair of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. In addition, it is reported in various biographical treatises that the two were close friends for many years. 1 In any case, it has been shown that they have had a strong influence on each other's literary work. 20 libri liberorum 37/2011

22 The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings While the literary work of his colleague exhausts itself with the two titles already mentioned, The Little Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, C.S. Lewis wrote numerous other works in addition to the seven-volume series The Chronicles of Narnia, but these are hardly received today. For example the science fiction trilogy Perelandra. The Chronicles of Narnia includes the following texts: 1. The Miracle of Narnia (The Magician s Nephew,) 2. The King of Narnia (The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, 1952) 3. The Ride to Narnia (The Horse and His Boy, 1954) 4. Prince Caspian of Narnia (1951) 5. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, 1952 6. The Silver Chair, 1953 7. The Last Fight (The Last Battle, 1956) Anyone who knows all three serial narratives will agree that at first glance they are quite different texts that were chosen here as reference points for the symposium. As Ernst Seibert said in the opening, one of the goals of the conference was to trace the currently very present fantasy boom [] back to the early days 3. The texts by Jansson, Lewis and Tolkien are not only suitable for this endeavor because of the time they were written, but also because of the lines of tradition at the beginning of which they stand. This was also discussed in detail on the two days of the symposium. At the same time, current texts such as Harry Potter or the ink trilogy by Cornelia Funke (to which Saskia Hebers talk was dedicated to a separate lecture) were also included. In the following, results, questions and approaches, arranged according to topic blocks, are briefly presented. Short summaries of the presentations can be found in this issue of libri liberorum. Attempt to clarify terms Of central importance, and therefore very present from the beginning to the end of the symposium, was the question of a definition of fantastic and fantasy. The problem of an exact genre outline or the question of whether it is more a narrative structure or presentation than a genre accompanies non-realistic texts in every academic debate. The presentation by Marco Prestel, who presented those present with a brief outline of models for defining the genre of fantasy, was a suitable introduction. On the one hand, the basic distinction between maximalist and minimalist definition was presented, i.e. whether all texts with unreal elements are now assigned to a large genre of the non-mimetic or in minimalist approaches in more detail in smaller libri liberorum 37 /

23 Sonja Loidl categories. If one opts for the second variant based on purely practical considerations, the standardized model used in children's and youth literature research is that of Maria Nikolajeva 4. As Marco explained, the scientist differentiates between closed system, open system and implied system. The former generally refers to fantasy, in which (at least at first glance) the plot has no connection to a real-fictional level. The fantastic, for its part, is characterized as an open system by the connection or overlap or the contrast between two spheres of activity. From the introductory lecture and the subsequent discussion it became clear that classifying the Moomin stories as fantasy or The Chronicles of Narnia as fantasy does not necessarily seem satisfactory. As an alternative approach, the lecturer presented the concept of mythopoetry, which is now increasingly established in Anglophone and English studies: This is understood to be the new inclusion of premodern archaic motifs, narrative materials and constellations, in which the fantasy novel becomes a kind of modern epic . Analogous to the subtitle of the conference, this could also be paraphrased with the term myth translation. In the course of the symposium, it emerged in this regard that this approach is proving to be very fruitful for The Lord of the Rings, as the presentations by the two medievalists Rudolf Simek and Andreas Hammer in particular have shown. Rüdiger Steinlein traced the characteristics of the adolescent novel in The Lord of the Rings in the closing lecture of the symposium. In the truest sense of the word, an exemplary feature of this kind in the film adaptation of Peter Jackson becomes visible. Because the director cast the role of Frodo, 33 years old in the literary original, with Elijah Wood, an actor (at the time of the first film adaptation in the cinemas, 2001) 20 years old. 5 In summary, it can be said that a uniform terminology will probably not be achievable in the future either. In each case, however, the goal of increased awareness of the fact that whoever says fantasy does not necessarily mean fantasy and vice versa was achieved. The categories of the market are not to be confused with categories of science. Boom To stay with the topic of the book market: It is obvious that the non-realistic children's and youth literature is booming. In this regard, the discussion came up with the difficulty of adequately coping with fantasy in a university setting: On the one hand, there is the pragmatic problem of text length if a reasonable number of texts is to be dealt with in one semester. On the other hand, there is the problem that the popularity of the genre is all too often associated with triviality. How the conference tries to successfully illustrate 22 libri liberorum 37/2011

24 Die Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings has, however, a detailed study of individual texts shows how valuable non-realistic children's and youth literature can be in terms of literary and cultural studies. A look behind the cliché is definitely worthwhile and worthwhile. Beyond the point of text quality, the question has been raised whether the contemporary boom was preceded by a shortage. Due to the long tradition of non-realistic elements in narrative texts, it was unfortunately not possible to go into this topic in more depth at the conference. A more recent approach to the background to the boom was seen in the fact that it has been technically possible since the end of the 20th century to transfer the literary templates appropriately and effectively to the public in other media. Even if this is not a main criterion for the popularity of the genre, the mutual influence of the media is certainly one factor that nourishes the flow. It was also repeatedly pointed out that a popularity-supporting factor can be found in the numerous intertextual and intermedia references in contemporary non-realistic children's and youth literature. In addition to the mythical references analyzed in detail in the course of the conference, this also includes references to elements with a shorter temporal distance to the respective text. The joy of recognition makes up a large part of the joy of reading: Recipients are, as Maria Tatar puts it, enchanted hunters 6. Recognition value is not only attributable to individual motifs, but also allusions to entire genres. Mareike Jendis explained in her lecture that Tove Jansson processed features of the fairy tale in Moomin's long journey and features of robinsonades in Moomin's wondrous island adventures. A thesis by Hans-Heino Ewers was also addressed, who is of the opinion that the end of the 1990s marked the dawn of a new era in the field of children's and youth media. It is characterized by globalization, the increasing emergence of composite media systems and the fantastic as well as fantasy. 7 Cross-over The topic of cross-over was also dealt with or broached in several lectures. Stefan Neuhaus, for example, viewed the concept of the cross-over from the perspective of the recipient, i.e. as texts read across all ages. As pointed out by Martin Gehring, C.S. Lewis in a theoretical paper. There the author even elevates it to the quality criterion of non-realistic texts. Andreas Hammer noted on this topic that in connection with The Lord of the Rings part of the fascination certainly comes from the holistic concept of the world of Middle-earth. Another reason inherent in the text for the fascination with the genre across all ages was seen by several participants in the slide of the initiation story, which serves as the basis for most fantasy and fantastic narratives. libri liberorum 37 /

25 Sonja Loidl Mareike Jendis used a further conception of the term cross-over, in that on the one hand (in the sense already mentioned) she understands texts read by young people and adults, but on the other hand also children's literature that has been adapted for adults and vice versa general literature adapted for children. With the question of the importance of text addressing raised in this context, the reference to the book market was once again established. Because the attribution of marketing to all age groups also supports the contemporary trend. Ultimately, it was agreed that it can only be considered for each individual text whether and how it was ascribed or how this ascription specifically affects its reception. For the narratives examined, it was noted that all three authors discussed do not seem to have conceived their texts in an age-related manner. Escapism The term is particularly popular and often used in connection with fantasy. Therefore, of course, he was also present during the symposium. At this point, therefore, the position of Lewis and Tolkien should be briefly recorded, which was presented by Martin Gehring in his lecture. Because authors of non-realistic literature are often also producers of theoretical discussions about the genre. Examples of this are Ralf Isau and Helmut Pesch in the German-speaking area. The authors of The Chronicles of Narnia and The Lord of the Rings have also written in-depth articles on the subject. 8 Tolkien's tree and leaf is quoted particularly frequently in view of the author's negative attitude towards the concept of escapism. From C.S. Lewis's comment that good fantastic stories should appeal to all ages was already mentioned in this report. About the translation of the Moomin texts Two lectures dealt explicitly with the earliest translations of Jansson's texts into German. Andreas Bode illustrated with numerous examples the extent of the changes in the translation by Vivika and Kurt Bandler by the Bentzinger Verlag. Stylistically, for example, diminutives and explanations were added in order to adapt the text to the editors' ideas of child welfare. In terms of content, there was a far-reaching elimination of intertextual and political references. Mareike Jendis extended this view to include a look at the illustrations, which Jansson had planned down to the smallest detail. Due to extensive cut-outs and repositioning, readers were presented with a completely different picture in the earliest translation than in the original. The speaker also showed that the changes were not necessarily made with great care

26 The Moomins, Narnia, and The Lord of the Rings were taken; For example, touching up a figure meant that part of the remaining illustration was also missing. The extensive discrepancies between the original and the translation in the early German editions of the Moomin books result in a completely different reception of the texts in German-speaking countries. This was counteracted only at the beginning of this century with new translations by Birgitta Kicherer at Arena Verlag (2001). It was noted that the situation is expanded to include an additional aspect if one knows that Jansson was aware of these problems: There was heated letter discussions between the author and the publisher regarding the extensive interventions in text and images. Translation of myths Saskia Heber reported on the implementation of ancient mythical motifs in her lecture on Cornelia Funke's ink trilogy (). She exemplified the modern implementation of the Orpheus motif in this contemporary youth literature series: On the one hand, Funke recorded the course from loss to recovery of the bride (in Ovid after the death of the hero or in the modern text after the encounter with a personified death) as well as that of the magical voice. The author turns an adult main character into a modern Orpheus. Myth translations in The Lord of the Rings were exemplarily demonstrated in the lectures by Rudy Simek and Andreas Hammer. From Hammer's lecture it emerged, among other things, that the introduction of elves, as the firstborn to witness the creation of the world, goes back to Tolkien. In fact, this is an innovation that has had a major impact on the genre: The immortals have become standard repertoire in the Fantasy genre, although not always with the dignity introduced by Tolkien.9 Another innovation was cited by Tatiana Fedjaewa: With regard to the magical object (the ring), she emphasizes that it is a damaging object and not, as is usual in mythical stories, a supportive one. In his lecture on Tolkien's adaptation of myths, Rudy Simek pointed out that the material that the author transformed was itself already reception history: Middle-earth practically represents the second stage of transformation, as Tolkien refers to the high medieval reception of much older myths. This is particularly interesting because Tolkien, as a specialist in this very field, could have easily accessed material that was dated earlier. The narration with the help of mythical elements was interpreted again and again in the course of the symposium as a means of specific reference to elements of the primary world or the real world. Christine Lötscher also referred to this when she spoke of the fact that current fantastic youth literature is shaped by apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic scenarios 10. These show their Mei-libri liberorum 37 /

27 Sonja Loidlung points out that at the moment, at least for young people, the state of mind of the world seems that everything is on the verge of collapse 11. During the symposium, The Lord of the Rings was also seen in two ways as an endgame, as a story of loss, depicted: On the one hand, by Andreas Hammer, as a narrative, at the end of which the loss of the magical is to be lamented as the Elves leave Middle-earth. On the other hand by Tatiana Fedjaewa, who spoke of the fact that although a world is depicted temporarily freed from evil, it is not indicated to readers how long this state of affairs can last. If fantasy can be regarded as the successor genre of fairy tales, Tolkien lacks that. And if they did not die, they are still alive today. Rüdiger Steinlein also referred to this when he interpreted Frodo's loss of a finger in The Lord of the Rings as an initiation scar. This refers to the fact that at the end of the narrative there is no complete harmonization, as is also the case with the adolescent novel, which the lecturer used for a genre comparison. A comment on the subject of text quality in connection with the translation of myths in contemporary fantasy and fantasy met with great general approval: The inclusion and processing of mythical elements is demanding if it goes beyond the set-piece-like picking up. This approach becomes problematic when looking at contemporary 2-worlds fantasy, which consciously uses older motifs similar to a quarry. Often there is also no claim to create a complex whole, but rather a post-modern game. The suggestion by Christine Lötscher seems to represent a feasible way: With the continuity claim of the 1-world fantasy and his claim that the whole should be more than the sum of its parts, the means of ancient German and medieval studies can be better dealt with, whereas new-Germanistic studies Approaches to the playful literary take-up of mythical motifs where a whole new world is not to be created, can do better justice. Character characteristics As a major change in the course of the translation of myths in non-realistic children's and youth literature from the second half of the 20th century, Tatjana Fedjaewa cites the psychologization of the main characters in her lecture: She refers to Bakhtin, who refers to it through the term epic distance assumes that hero figures in epics are not rounded figures to identify with. 12 This characterization criterion addresses an essential difference between mythical material and myth transformation. Jana Mikota dealt with gender issues at Lewis and Jansson. This lecture was undoubtedly the one that sparked the most heated discussion. The main complaint on the issue of gender was the lack of protagonism 26 libri liberorum 37/2011

28 The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings are women in fantastic literature today. The speaker said that there were significantly more female main characters in the 1970s and 1980s than is currently the case. Harry Potter is not a girl either. Regarding Rowling's texts, however, it was also noted that with the character Hermione there is an ironization of the division of roles. Aside from Harry Potter's best friend, Meggie from Inkheart was mentioned as strong female main characters in the course of the discussion, who due to an inherited fantastic ability can partly take her fate in the ink world into her own hands. As a suggestion for a research project it was noted that it might be informative to look at the distribution of roles in general fantastic literature in comparison to children's and youth literary fantasy. The question of why gender constructions in fantasy remained conventional for so long had to be left in the room in the end. For fantasy, Martin Gehring offered as a conclusive explanation that in archaic systems, corresponding gender images basically appear appropriate. The objection that it does not necessarily have to be emancipatory figures, but that the linguistic representation of gender roles is much more important, formed the conclusion of this passionate discussion. Returning to the aspect of figure drawing, Ines Galling noted in her lecture on subversive idylls in the Moomin books that with regard to figure psychology and the maintenance of a narrative idyll, an intersection after Tove Jansson's fifth book must be set. From this point on, the figures are drawn more rounded and the harmony of the Mumintal is increasingly undermined. The possible interpretation that Finland is portrayed as a threatened idyll was also raised. Christine Lötscher also referred to the local idyll in the Moomin books in her lecture. She noted that in contemporary fantastic youth literature, the movement out into the world is usually opposed to the movement towards a harmonious home or the main plot is contrasted by a peaceful starting point. This agrees with Foucault's concept of heterotopia, of opposing spaces, whereby the contrast can also be transferred to inner and outer spaces with psychological connotations. For the Moominfather, the unfixed existence of the Hatifnatten gives rise to wanderlust, which creates an antipole to the domestic domesticity of the Moomin Valley. However, it turns out that the idyll, as soon as it has been lost, is again the goal of the movement of the figures with Jansson. For the texts of Jansson, but also those of Tolkien, it is evident that the non-human arsenal of figures plays an important role. And in Narnia, too, it is talking animals with which the protagonists largely interact. From this the question arose in the conversation whether there would be greater freedom for the authors with regard to figure drawing if they invent characters who are not people. Jan Leichsenring sees a possible answer in the fact that for younger addressees identification through such a libri liberorum 37 /

29 Sonja Loidl choice is facilitated in a possible way. Martin Gehring added the position of C.S. Lewis, who formulated that non-humans can be characterized more pointedly without creating flat figures. Psychology From the characterization aspect, there is now a transition to the psychological aspects of the treated texts. Because, as Ernst Seibert noted, what they all have in common, perhaps, is that we have to do it again and again with a struggle between children and a threatening world, which mostly also has a certain identity with the adult world. And that takes place in the center of all three [] transformations of myths and mythical worlds, whereby a depth psychological view would be of particular interest. 13 Sylvia Zwettler-Otte took this look in her lecture Psychoanalytic Jewels in the Moomin Valley. In it, she explained that the very concept of transporting the plot into a strange world, as it is generally part of the concept in fantastic literature and fantasy, corresponds to the psychological mechanism of alienation. With Tove Jansson in particular, projection is also very often used: the characters shift their feelings of jealousy, homesickness or wanderlust to other characters, which supports the processing process. Successful coping is reflected in the Moomin texts in satisfactory endings as confirmation of the feeling of security for the characters and the reading audience. This also applies to Jansson, where the end is not obviously conciliatory: For example, the destruction of Fillyjonka's house has its positive side against the background that the character did not like the house. The question of the extent to which such elements are consciously incorporated had to be left open in the end. In connection with psychological aspects, the question of the perception of reality was also asked. That reality arises in the eye of the beholder is succinctly illustrated by Stefan Neuhaus using a quote from the figure Dumbledore from Harry Potter: Of course it is happening inside your head, Harry, but why on earth should that mean that it is not real? 14 Jan Leichsenring also examined the relationship between imagination, fantasy and reality in his lecture on the concepts of reality in the Moomin books. He demonstrated that the characters' imaginations have real effects on the level of action. For example, speech actions early physical effects when the ironic handling of Nini makes the figure invisible. Or when the Moomins move to a lighthouse, the Moominmother paints the Moomin Valley and on a particularly uncomfortable day can enter the picture and stay in it for a while. With Jansson, imagination influences fictional reality: there is a magical idealism, in the course of which the idea constitutes the object. The characters are not surprised by this peculiarity of their world. The lecturer showed that the changeability of the world is, on the contrary, perceived as comforting. Because that changes occur, 28 libri liberorum 37/2011

30 The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings if necessary has something reassuring for the characters. This positive attitude ultimately leads to the already referenced idyll of the valley. A little outlook The first step in a scientific debate always consists of questions. Some of these were answered and many asked in the course of the conference. One can also hope that the unanswered questions give some of those present an opportunity to undertake further research projects. In autumn 2011, the conference proceedings on The Moomins, Narnia and The Lord of the Rings will appear in the series of children's and youth literature research in Austria on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of Tove Jansson's death. It is planned to also include the contributions that were planned in the program but had to be omitted. The conference and conference proceedings will definitely be worth a look (more than) for specialists as well as for those interested in gaining insight into the complexity and diversity of non-realistic children's and youth literature. Notes 1 See, inter alia, Duriez, Colin (2005): Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The gift of friendship. A. d. American. v. Christian Rendel. Moers: Brendow. 2 Unlike Jansson, this series was not written chronologically. 3 Recording of the introduction by Ernst Seibert by the Vienna Libraries, 5: 10-5: 15. 4 Cf. Nikolajeva, Maria (1988): The Magic Code. The Use of Magical Patterns in Fantasy for Children. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 5 See International movie database (). 6 Cf. Tatar, Maria (2009): Enchanted Hunters. The power of stories in childhood. London [et al.]: W.W. Norton. 7 Cf. inter alia Ewers, Hans-Heino (ed.) (2002): Reading between new media and pop culture. Children's and youth literature in the age of multimedia entertainment. Weinheim [and others]: Juventa. 8 See Tolkien, J. R. R (2001): Tree and Leaf. London: Harper Collins. See Lewis, C.S. (1982): On Three Ways of Writing for Children. In: The Chronicles of Narnia. Including an essay on writing by C.S. Lewis. London: Harper Collins, S cf.e.g. De Mari, Silvana (2008): The Last Elf. Munich: cbj. 10 This applies, for example, to The Hunger Games, a trilogy that was awarded the German Youth Literature Prize in 2010 in the Youth Jury category. 11 Recording of the previous day by Christine Lötscher through the Vienna libraries, 34: 14-34: Bachtin, Michail (1986): Epos und Roman. In: Investigations on the poetics and theory of the novel., Berlin [among others]: Aufbau-Verlag. 13 Recording of Ernst Seibert's introduction by the Vienna Libraries, 7: 27-8: Rowling, J.K. (2007): Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. London: Bloomsbury, S libri liberorum 37 /

31 abstracts for the symposium Ash nazg durbatulûk ... On the language of other worlds Helmut Birkhan, Vienna * 1 Based on the different language worlds of Tolkien and their associative backgrounds, especially in the elven language of Sindarin, my contribution deals with the fundamental problems of invented languages, the unlike Volapük or Esperanto, they are not primarily intended to serve communication in everyday bourgeoisie. It is about the question of aesthetic components, the motivation of the effort, the language economy and the internal consistency of these languages. Serving as a benchmark include: Klingon, Mickey Mouse and Enoch, revealed in 1583, which was considered the language of God, angels and demons as the oldest language of all (and is still valid in certain circles). The special quality of Sindarin will become apparent. *** Univ. Prof. Dr. Helmut Birkhan, born in Vienna; 1970 Habilitation in Ancient German Studies (Habil script: Germanic and Celtic up to the end of the Roman era); 1972 o. Univ.-Prof. for older German language and literature, University of Vienna; from 1988 founding of Dutch studies in Vienna; 1990 officer of the royal dutch. Orange Nassau Order; Visiting professor in the Netherlands (University of Amsterdam) and Belgium (Antwerp); 1997 Habilitation in Celtology (Habil. Writing Celts. Attempt to present an overall picture of their culture). WS 1999/2000: Foundation of Celtology as an individual diploma course at the University of Vienna; Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and corresponding member abroad of the Norwegian and Heidelberg Academy; Emeritus since 2006. The translations of the first three Moomin books into German by Vivica and Kurt Bandler Andreas Bode, Munich The history of the translations of Tove Jansson's Moomin books reflects the translation practice in western Germany of around fifty years. The translations of the first two Moomin books from the fifties 1954 A funny company and 1955 Storm in the Moomin Valley by Tove Jans-30 libri liberorum 37/2011

32 abstracts for the symposium sons friend Vivica Bandler and her husband Kurt were characteristic of the time not only in the effort to Germanize the original names as much as possible, but also in the editing, which in some cases strongly intervened in the original text, which was both played down by childification in the sense of the assumed reading age of no more than ten years as well as a kind of censorship for educational reasons. The paper examines the changes made by the Bandler couple in more detail in order to clarify the tendencies of these translations. This translation practice by the Bandlers, to which Komet im Mumintal came up in the same style in 1961, was the basis for all media adaptations of the books from the 1950s to well into the 1990s, for example a successful radio play series in the children's program of the Bavarian Radio and the pretty and harmless productions through the Augsburger Puppenkiste. It was not until the year 2000 that Angelika Kutsch and Birgitta Kicherer started making new translations. *** Dr. Andreas Bode, born in Leipzig in 1942; From 1966 studies of Eastern European and modern history and Slavic studies in Munich, 1971 doctorate for Magister Artium, research stays in Stockholm and Moscow, 1975 doctorate for Dr. phil. with a thesis on Catherine II's naval policy and the conflicts with Sweden and Turkey (); Training as a scientific librarian of the higher service in Munich; academic librarian at the Bamberg University Library; Head of the libraries at the Berlin University of the Arts, from 1983 director of the International Youth Library in Munich; from 1993 chief librarian; retired January 1, 2008; Scientific activity (contributions to various publications and lectures) mainly in the field of international children's book illustration and the history of the children's book The Most Precious of All ... The Arkenstein and the royal ruby ​​as an example of the construction of alterity and otherworldly at J.R.R. Tolkien and Tove Jansson Patrick Brückner, Potsdam * In connection with Tove Jansson's Moomin cycle, Gerhard Haas asks the question (which he answers immediately afterwards), Are they [these texts] modern? libri liberorum 37 /

33 abstracts for the symposium Hardly. They are imaginative, funny, poetic and imaginative, but it is difficult to pinpoint modernity in them. 2 According to Haas, this lack of modernity can also be found in Tolkien's The Hobbit, which [is] neither an expression of an autonomous or autonomous childhood, nor does it accentuate the problems and constellations of the contemporary world in a figuratively and fantastically playful way Depth psychological deposits and layers of individual or human-historical forms of being on the subject of ha [t] and serve the self-discovery and localization of contemporary people.3 If one follows Haas, the question arises whether these texts could only be described as unfashionable and whether the negation of categories such as self-discovery, depth psychology, etc. is the reason for the non-modernity of the two texts, or whether the lack of these categories is a symptom of something other is. Rather, it seems as if the denial of modernity was based on a world construction that can be described as alteritarian, which is reflected in the otherworlds of Tolkien and Jansson. Using the example of the Arkenstein in The Hobbit and the king's ruby ​​in Jansson's The Moomins. A funny company (Trollkarlens hatt) this should be explained in more detail. Using the Arkenstein in Tolkien's The Hobbit, the lecture is intended to show how the concept of fairie (which Tolkien describes in On Fairy Storys) establishes on the one hand an otherworldliness in the text and, on the other hand, a certain kind of historicity (that of the epic) in this text is beyond the fairytale, generated. It is important that the term fairie in Tolkien refers to a reality that is in opposition to what is commonly referred to as fairytale. In a second step it should be asked whether this principle can also be found in Jansson's conception of the Otherworld, which the Moomins inhabit. This should be done using the example of the royal ruby, since the similarities between Tolkien's description of the Arkenstein and Jansson's description of this ruby ​​are strikingly similar. It seems as if these similarities result from a similar construction of the respective otherworld, namely one to be described as a fairy story (in the Tolkien sense). If so, then the non-existent modernity of Jansson's text described by Haas could not be explained by a deficient finding, but rather as an altered quality of the text. The discussion of this concept is particularly fruitful in medievalist contexts because it prevents other concepts of the world from being co-opted. Here, alterity is the concept that builds a bridge between these two texts that makes their qualities visible. *** Patrick Brückner, studied German literature with a focus on German mediaeval studies and sociology with the 32 libri liberorum 37/2011

34 abstracts for the symposium with a focus on sociology of gender relations at the University of Potsdam, works on the aspects of gender and on mythopoetic aspects at J.R.R. Tolkien, seminars on Tolkien and the Middle Ages at the University of Potsdam, publication of various articles on Tolkien, including Tolkien on Love in Tolkien and Modernity and The Dragon as a poetological concept by J.R.R. Tolkien in Good Dragons are Rare. The semantics of the subject in the works of J.R.R. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings and C.S. Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia Tatjana Fedjaewa, St. Petersburg The writers' turn to the appreciation of myth and the childhood of modern genres is explained in the lecture by the polemics with the interpretation of myths in fascist Germany and by their concerns, to the readers in the post-war period who were brought close to the pre-Christian state of consciousness through the barbarism of war, to teach the sacred worldview. In the lecture, the archaic subject scheme of the two works will be analyzed on the basis of the theories of V. Propp (Morphology of the Fairy Tale 1928) and O. Freidenberg (The Poetics of the Subject and the Genre 1935). In their fundamental studies, the scientists showed the semantic relationship between the subject motifs and myth, heroic epic and magical fairy tale. The universal three-part formula of the archaic and medieval subject of loss (disappearance), search (suffering), gain (victory), which they founded, is also the basis of the great epic works of Tolkien and Lewis. Her essays, in which the authors explain the background to the structure of their books, testify to this. The strands of the archaic subject structure are complemented in both cases by the Risome principle, which turns the poetological whole into an open system. The Risome principle is actually the fantasy principle, which requires the freedom in the interpretation of the mythical motifs, the rich intertextual potential of the texts and the author's attitude to the development of the active reader position. All of this brings the heroic epic closer to the modern genre of novels. The absolute past of the epopee (M. Bachtin) is overcome by projecting the content of the works onto the historical, unfinished time. In contrast to the archaic epic, the main heroes are not static figures, but rather developing personalities. Their development is argued psychologically. The orientation of the authors on the harmonizing beginning of the childhood consciousness of the main heroes, which has much in common with the mythologi- libri liberorum 37 /

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