What is Common Kaya Kalpam Yoga

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Expressed by Gothic letters are the lingual (cerebral) sounds including the r-vowel, but excluding the sibilant, which is circumscribed by sh; also the l-vowel, the visarga (h) and the anusvara (m). The palatal sibilance is represented by ç. - The Indian words in italics are partly Sanskrit, partly Pali; For the technical terms among them, see the parallel register following the notes. - The few purely scientific comments are enclosed in square brackets. - R.D. = Rhys Davids refers to the English translation of the Milinda-Panha in the Sacred Books of the East (see introduction). [129]


1 People are dreaming, whose eyes must first open about the true nature of the world. In this sense Gotama (Gautama) is the Buddha, i.e. the awakened, or Sammā-sambuddha "the fully awakened". In terms of form, this is an age-inherited verbal adjective that indicates the state (cf. the so-called deponentialen Participia Perfecti in Latin), which literally corresponds to the Greek πυστο in ἄ-πυστος "ignorant". The root is * bheudh-, bodh-, πευϑ.

2bāhira-kathā: so called in contrast to the actual content of the book, the king's conversations with the Buddhist sage.

3Yonakā. »The Indians call the Greeks with the common name of the Jonians in the Orient (cf. the Hebrews, Syrians, Arabs and the old Persian cuneiform inscriptions) and indeed they initially borrowed this name from the Persians, be it back then, where, according to Herodotus' testimony, they took part in the Persian wars against the Greeks as Persian auxiliaries, or was it only later, when Alexander invaded India, probably Iranian interpreters on the dealings with the Indian princes, etc. served. "(A. Weber, The Greeks in India, Berl. Acad. 1890, p. 901.) Yonaka is the one given by the suffix -ka extended form of y, which is also used alongside himona (skt. yavana), that in old Persian yauna (or Hebrew yavan) and thereby goes back to the Homeric ᾽Ιάονες.

4 Σαγγαλα (Weber, loc. Cit. P. 902).

5 This is the name of all those who, on their own initiative or as members of an order, followed or proclaimed a religious or philosophical idea not recognized by Brahmanic [131] orthodoxy. Such Çramans (Pāli Samanā) had already flooded the country before the Buddha's time due to absolute religious freedom.

6[Jambudipe Sāgalanagare etc., ed. p. 3 below. To make the transition, I had to hoti instead of ahosi read.]

7 These are the four most famous of India's philosophical systems.

8 The usual number of sippa (çilpa). i.e. of the Sciences and Arts, is eighteen. The translation of muddā, actually »sealing art«, with »document teaching« is not entirely certain (R.D.).

9 Elephants, chariots, cavalry, infantry - according to the towers, runners, horses and farmers of the game of chess (originating in India).

10 “Who made this world? He and He made it The crow is white. Because their bones are white. The crane is red. Because his blood is red. Such and similar casuistic and sophistic disputes and discussions are called lokakkhāyikā. " Attha-Kathā to the Brahmajāla-Sutta; see Childers sub lokāyatam.

11 The four patisambhidās are 1) knowledge of the grammatical sense, 2) knowledge of the deeper (philosophical) meaning, 3) knowledge of the origin of the words, 4) the ability to interpret them correctly. Only the saint or arahā (arhat) is in full possession of these faculties.

12 The nine angāni, that is, "members" of the Buddhist canon are in their Pāli designation: 1. Sutta, doctrinal treatises in prose or in verse; 2. Geyya, treatises containing mixed prose and verse; 3. Veyyākarana declaration; 4. Gäthä, unmixed verses; 5. Udana, songs of joy; 6. Itivuttaka, a collection of 101 suttas that begin with the words, "This is how the Buddha spoke"; 7. Jātaka, Stories of Previous Births of the Buddha; 8. Vedalla, Emotional Psychological Discussions. The division into three "baskets" is more common, see note 43.

13 [Cf. Note 15. The literal translation is: "... knowing by heart (= knowing by heart) he had reached perfection."] [132] 14 Thera (Sthavira): a courtesy title for the monks who have belonged to the order for a long time.

15 [With patisambhidāsu pārami-ppatto compare abhiññāsu pāramim gato (Jāt. 17, see Childers). Here as there is the more specific meaning of pārami excluded by the preceding term as well as by the locative. It is therefore also above p. 4 (ed. P. 2117) hardly to be accepted, although possible (cf. R.D.p. 34 note 3).]

16 See note 11.

17 It is a general Indian observation that, as a result of a sudden strong affect, the hairs in the pores rise upwards. The king's shock was probably caused by a premonition or a prenatal reminiscence.

18 The "long-lived" (not immortal) gods are, apparently because of the unclouded happiness in which they live, unable to grasp the profound seriousness of the Buddha's teaching,

Which is why they always come up short in debates with the Buddha or one of his disciples in the Pitakas and are considered to be superior to ordinary people, but far below the staunch Buddhist. A god can only achieve nirvana if he is born again as a human being and as such comes to the realization that all existence, including the divine, is impermanent = painful. Only the anagāmin ("non-recurring"), i.e. one who has outgrown human existence but dies without attaining nirvana spends his last life or his last life in a Brahman world. See notes 58, 164, 143.

19 »Mandala-māla: a hall that consists only of a roof supported by pillars. The pillars are connected by a small wall two to three feet high, and the roof extends over the pillars so that the space inside is well shaded, "R.D.

20 God is faced with the unpleasant necessity of being reborn on earth, under circumstances that he cannot choose, but which are rather determined by the karman (note 84) of his last earthly life with the inexorable nature of the law. According to the Buddhist [133] view, life as God or in heaven only plays the role of a pause for rest or relaxation in the development of individuality, which Karman, the most incorruptible of all judges, grants for every particularly virtuous life on earth. Only the anāgāmin develops further in the heavenly worlds and attains nirvāna there, and only such an anāgāmin can determine the special nature of human existence himself, which he decides to lead in order to serve the faith. Cf. Notes 164, 143, 58, 18.

21 i.e. in the metric processing of the narrative; see introduction. In the above translation, the meter of the original has been retained.

22āyasmā (āyushmān). So the older monks (seniors) are addressed not only by the lay people, but also by the younger monks.

23 The following passage has often been translated, most precisely, but with some abbreviations, by Oldenberg in his "Buddha" (4th edition, p. 293 fg.).

24 It is important for a sign of taste and culture to give the same thought multiple expressions. Hence the cumbersome language of the old Pāli texts, which, incidentally, is also based on the desire to be as clear as possible.

25 Literally: “One person (puggala) is not included here. ”This is the third sentence of the doctrine of the three attributes (note 69): the famous, in India as in Europe often misunderstood and opposed sentence of not-self(anattā, anātman). The same turns against the naive assumption of simple and unchangeable (substantial) carriers of mental and natural phenomena. Just as the trunk of the Pisang tree consists of leaf sheaths rolled on top of each other without a solid core, so teaches the Buddha, every natural unit, organic as well as inorganic, is sensibly recognizable as well as supersensible (dhamma, dharma) only a system of forces or samskāras that emerges, is renewed through a shorter or longer period of time (cf. the “metabolism” proven by modern natural science) and finally dissolves (sankhārā in the Pāli, literally "preparations" = tendencies, strivings, cf. Schopenhauer's [134] "will") that is, neither as a whole nor in detail something that is fixed, persistent or "self" (attā, ātman). The fact that in practical thinking we always believe these forces are bound to substances, that we regard the thing as something existing alongside its so-called properties, comes from the fact that we represent things and beings as a unit, such as "coarse", "fine" ( cf. III, 7. 14), "Nāgasena", "chariot", "hair", "drawbar" etc. There is something immortal in us. But this is not in nature, but above nature, i.e. supra-spatial and supra-temporal, i.e. also supra-individual. This our true self becomes manifest when we have overcome nature, the “will to live”, in nirvāna or “cessation” of individuality (of being special). In this and no other sense, the Buddha repeatedly calls out to his disciples: "Throw away, you monks, that which is not yours: the physicality, the feelings, the ideas, the dispositions, the knowledge", that is, all five skandhas (cf. . P. 13 with notes), of which you consist; but in this sense he asks them to investigate all the elements of existence and to say to each other without exception: "This is not mine, I am not, this is not my self". But he maintains the strictest silence about the true self, because it is "the intangible, the unimaginable, for which there is no picture", because "where all things are suspended, all possibilities of language are also suspended" (Sutta-Nipāta 1149 , 1076).

26 This is a standing list that is meant to encompass all of the broader parts of "physicality." The concept of the latter also includes a number of finer components: the powers of sensory perception (sight, hearing, etc.), the female sense, the male sense, language, the power of cohesion, etc. Hence the next question.

27 The physicality (rūpa-kkhandha) is defined as »the four great phenomena (mahābhūtāni: Earth, fire, air, water) and the form derived from them ”(Dhammasangani 584). She is one of the five skandhas (Khandhā), i.e. groups (actually "tribes") into which the phenomena of human life are divided.

28vedanā, the second Skandha, comprising 3 x 6 types, [135] namely the pleasant, the unpleasant and the indifferent feeling, depending on whether these are accompanying symptoms of a visual, hearing, smell, taste, skin impression or a representative (memory) Performance.

29saññā (samjña), actually "description, name". What is meant are the perceptions following the sensory excitations and the corresponding memory images as well as those general ideas or terms that such "marking" requires.

30 This word can be used in German as Engl. temper both how disposition) can be understood and therefore seems to reproduce sānkhārā (samskārās) quite suitable in the narrower sense presented above. For among the 52 samskāras there is no one who does not fit into one of the following three categories: 1. General human (animal) abilities (thought, memory, attention, etc.); 2. individual character traits (stupidity, gentleness, greed, etc.); 3. Temporary moods (fear, hatred, anger, etc.). 1 and 2 are = engl. disposition, 3 = engl. temper (= German disposition in the narrower sense, see "I am good, badly disposed"). These samskāras are, just as in the philosophy of Sāmkhya yoga, where they are rāsanās that is, the moral result of previous lives and at the same time that which determines the type of future birth as the subjective precipitation of the karman or action (note 84), whereby one must remember that for Buddhism the character is not, as for Schopenhauer , is something unchangeable, but, like all things, is in constant, even if often imperceptible, change. - The word must not be confused with the samskara-skandha samskara in its broader sense. In this it means (cf. note 25) everything that a thing or being consists of, all forces that are active in the universe, i.e. everything that exists in space and time. In this way and by being with dharma Not only does it signify the system of samskāras that make up a thing, but also the idea that we have of the thing, i.e. a samskāra (in the broader sense), further by the view that everyone [136] samskāra at all times only in connection with others (i.e. in a dharma), never existed by itself, it is easy to understand that the words samskara and dharma are used very often seemingly and just as often really as completely synonymous. Samskara in the narrower sense is one of the five components of the individual, dharma in the narrower sense a thing or being both as the idea we have of it while dharma and samskara in their broader sense mean everything that exists. Is finally dharma also the common expression for "truth" and "teaching of the Buddha".

31 viññāna (vijñāna). This is actually the active side of the intellect, that which recognizes the perceptions, ideas, feelings and states as such, relates them to the outside world, judges and evaluates them. Hence the division of knowledge into wholesome, harmful and indifferent, etc. (89 species). Synonymous with riññāna are citta and mano. It still is mano in the narrower sense, namely as the sixth sense(man'indriya), the reproductive and productive imagination as memory and imagination. Where finally the recognition next to the four great phenomena (note 27) and space (ākāsa) appears as the sixth element (viññāna-dhātu), it is undoubtedly that the other five elements make up "corporeality" as the totality of the spiritual (cetasikā) Skandhas thought.

32 The skandhas are and remain just skandhas, regardless of the form in which they come together. Cf. the relationship of the forest to its trees.

33 A supersensible "soul", a subject or thing-in-itself (ātman, attā).

34 From the Vedāntic point of view, too, this question should have been answered in the negative, since the Ātman of the Vedānta is likewise not nāgasena, not an individuality, but "one without a second", and furthermore because there is no coexistence of Ātman and Māyā except in our imagination.

35 Literally: »a skin awareness associated with displeasure«. This is one of the 89 types of consciousness that make up the fifth skandha (note 31). See note 28 above redanā.

[137] 36 ["Spokes of the wheels" (R.D.) are not to be expected at this point and probably also as rasmayo not used. The plural is not conspicuous because the king of course drives with several horses.]

37 Literally: »Following the drawbar (paticca), following the axis, etc. comes the name, the designation, etc. “Car” comes about. ”With this one paticca or with nissāya or ārabbha ("Leaning on, clinging") every causal relationship is circumscribed - a special Buddhist custom, which probably has the main purpose of counteracting the naive opinion of the passing over of a substance. In fact, as Hume first showed in Europe, we only know a sequence of phenomena which, where it appears in accordance with the law, is understood as a causal relationship.

38 Samyutta-Nikāya V, 10, 6 (R.D.).

39mam nissāya "Leaning against me". See note 37.

40 The king wants to put Nāgasena's famous quick wittedness to the test.

41 These names, like Milinda from Menandros, are most likely distorted from Greek originals. In Deva-mantiya ("Council of Gods") Theomantis, in Ananta-kāya ("With infinite body") Antiochus, in Mankura ("mirror") Menekles and in Sabbadinna ("Given by all" = skt Sarvadatta) is a translation of Sarapodotus or Pasidotos has been suspected. Sheaf, loc. cit. p. 269

42 The three dispositions (samskāras, see note 30) are often the disposition of the body, speech and mind (kāya-, vacī-, citta-sankhāra) enumerated. The first belongs of course to the physical aggregate (note 27) and in particular to the life force (jīvit'indriya). The second, as well as the third, consists of two of the fifty-two dispositions that make up the fourth skandha, one of contemplation and reflection, the last one of imagination and feeling.

43 The Buddhist canon is divided into three "baskets" (pitaka): the vinaya, sūtra (sutta) and abhidharma (abhidhamma-) pitaka. The first contains the rules of the order and the like, the second the speeches of the Buddha along with all kinds of poetry [138] and stories, the third a large Buddhist catechism.

44 Lay brother, i.e. one who recognizes the teachings of the Buddha and observes the lay rules.

45 Out of deference and in order to admit oneself as a student.

46anupādā parinibbānam. It is based on the idea that all individual existence, even the most divine, is necessarily imperfect and therefore painful and that perfect redemption can therefore only be redemption from individuality, i.e. redemption from everything we can imagine. More on this in O. Schrader, "Das Wesen des Buddhismus" (in preparation by the same publisher).

47 error (kleça, kilesa) in the Buddhist sense is passion and everything related to it: "Greed, hatred, folly, vanity, fantasy, doubt, indolence, presumptuousness, shamelessness, hard-heartedness." So fanaticism as well as quietism belong here and no less Christian "love", if one of the dispassionate "benevolence" (metta) who wants to distinguish between Buddhists.

48 yoniso manasikāro, "Thorough attention".

49paññā.

50manasikārena mānasam gahetcā.

51silam, saddhā viriyam, sati, samādhi.

52indriyabala, bojjhanga, magga, satipatthāna, sammappadhāna, iddhipāda, jhāna, vimokha, samādhi, samāpatti: lots of terms from Buddhist salvation practice, some of which will be explained later. The five moral forces are faith, perseverance, sincere thinking, focus, and discernment; the seven marks of holiness are serious thinking (meditation), doctrinal exploration, perseverance, joy, calm, focus, and equanimity.

53 Samyutta Nikāya 1, 3, 3 and VII, 1, 6.

54 In the Buddha's time the religious and philosophical systems were divided into four classes: those of knowledge and morality (vidyā-carana), those who bare bare knowledge, those who reject all knowledge (skepticism) and finally those who spend bare morality on the path to happiness. Cf. Otto Schrader, On the State of Indian Philosophy [139] at the Time of Mahāvīra and Buddha, introductory and general part.

55 What is meant is trust in Buddha, his teachings and his community.

56 The five obstacles (nīvaranāni) are lust, malice, nonchalance, pride, doubt.

57 See note 47.

58 The four stages are: 1. that of Sotāpanna: the one who entered the "stream" (sota) of teaching; 2) of the Sakadāgāmin: who is born again only once as a human; 3) of the Anāgāmin, who is only born again in a Brahman world, and 4) of the Arhat, who still reaches nirvāna in this life or has already achieved.

59 A dubious passage in the translation of which I follow Rhys Davids (Hīnati-Kumbure).

60 Serious thinking (sati, smrti), Literally "memory", in the broader sense the monk has to practice at all times, in that he is absolutely not allowed to do anything thoughtlessly, but always has to give himself an exact account of each of his actions, even purely physical ones. In a narrower sense, serious thinking is to be understood as the four directions (or methods, prasthāna) of serious thinking (see below), namely meditating on the living and dead body, on feelings, on thinking and on the objects of the Thinking.

61"Satiñ ca kvāham, bhikkhave, sabbatthikam vadāmi." Overlooked by Rhys Davids.

62samādhi, literally "assembly", mostly translated as "calm", "collection" and the like. This term also has a general and a special meaning. The first is in our case, the last only plays a role in the ecstatic states (jhānas, dhyānas).

63samādhi-pamukhā. -nlnnā, -ponā, -pabbārā.

64kūtāgāram.

65 Samyutta-Nikāya XXI, 5.

66samāhito.

67paññā, prajñā.

68 The four sacred truths of suffering, of the cause of suffering, of the cessation of suffering, and of [140] the eightfold path that leads to overcoming suffering.

69 The Doctrine of the Three Attributes (tilakkhanam, trilakshanam) is the metaphysical basis of Buddhism. Only he who understands it can earnestly strive for nirvana. More in my treatise on the essence of Buddhism, mentioned in note 46. See also note 25.

70 Freier: "Do you stay the same in becoming or do you become someone else?" The verb (uppajjati) has both the broader sense of "arising" and the narrower sense of "being born", which can easily be explained by the fact that, according to the Buddhist view, one life follows the other in the same way as the moments of existence follow one another within the individual life. The latter are related to the series of life courses, just as the smaller ones are related to the larger vibrations of one and the same tone. The transition from death to birth can also be illustrated by the image of a flame that leaps from a burned down candle to a fresh one at the last moment. The flame is the mind (the spiritual skandhas in potentia, Notes 92 and 21), the candle the physicality, and the slow growth of the new flame would correspond to the gradual awareness of the new individual. The comparison only does not fit insofar as the physicality of the new individual only begins to be formed with the skipping of the power of thought (we would say soul) into the womb and is not already there. Incidentally, as I said, our chapter does not deal specifically with the problem of birth, but more generally with the problem of becoming.

71Evam eva kho, mahārājā, dhamma-santati sandahati. over dhamma see notes 25 and 30. The word here is obviously in its original sense: aggregate of samskāres, but could also be understood in that broadest sense by using sankhara collapses and every thing and every being, every sensation, perception and idea, every concept and every thought, in short everything that somehow exists in space and time means. Santati means "expansion, extension, row, line, continuation, continuation, progeny" and is from the preposition sam- (cf. gr. συν) and the root tan, idg. th, composed, which among other things also in [141] skt. tantu "Thread", tanti »Rope«, tanu "thin", tanu (tanū) "Body, body, person", in Greek τανυ, Latin. tenuis as well as in our "thin" and "stretch" plugged. The verb sandahati means how uppajjati »Arise« and in the narrower sense »are born«, so »arise« and especially »be reborn« - very puzzling when one considers that the literal translation and the meaning of the corresponding Sanskrit verb (samdadhāti out sam- + dhā = gr. -ϑη- in τιϑημι) "unite, connect" is. I believe that the solution to the riddle is through the Sanskrit word sandhyā »Twilight« = connection time of day and night, night and day is conveyed as well as through the images under which one imagined the reincarnation: the transition of a caterpillar from one blade of grass to another (so that it connects the two blades of grass with one another for a moment, Brh. Up. IV [VI], 4. 3) and crossing a ditch with a swing rope (Visuddhimagga in Warren, Buddhism in translations p. 238 fg.). Sandahati (patisandahati) "He is born again" would originally have meant something like "he builds a bridge (from this to the next existence)" and would then be based on uppajjati came to mean "renews itself" in the broader sense.

72Apubbam acarimam viya sandahati. For the Buddhist all existence is only a momentary (absolutely permanent) arising and passing away, appearing and disappearing, a constant burning process.

73 Rhys Davids comments on this: “A person is exactly what he is aware of in every moment. The phase of his self-consciousness, the totality of his conscious content, changes constantly and at death is so different from what it was at birth that in a certain sense he is not the same during one time as what he was at another time . But there is a connection in the whole series - a connection that depends on the whole body. And this makes the parable appropriate, insofar as in it the lamp is the body and the flame is the changing self-confidence. ”I cannot necessarily agree with that. In any case, the parable is incorrect in that it is entirely unbuddhist to [142] represent the body as the constant, unchangeable, although the Buddha once said that it would still be better to regard the body as the "self" than the visibly impermanent Ghost. According to the teachings of the Buddha, everything, body and mind, is in a moment of change. - With the "last act of consciousness" [pacchima-viññānasangaha] either the last conscious moment before entering Parinirvāna is meant or because it is the mind [viññāna] is that descends in the womb [Oldenberg, Buddha p. 258], the last conception, i.e. the last grasping [sangaha] the thinking power after matter, or finally, since the thinking power resp. the "recognition" is what is actually active in the human being, upon which every "grasping" [upādāna] of objects going back, all of the last life.

74Ghrta, engl. (ghee, »Is a type of melted butter that is made in the East (East India). The butter is melted over a low fire and set aside to cool. The thick, opaque, whitish and more liquid part or ghee, which makes up the greater bulk of the butter, is then removed. The remainder, which is less liquid, is mixed with peanut oil and sold as a lesser variety of ghee ”(Encyclopädia Britannica). The Ghrta is used by the Brahmins for almost all dishes, also as medicine, for ceremonies, sacrifices, etc.

75nissāya. See note 37.

76 Under the closer cause (hetu) and the more distant cause (paccayo) are here the thirst or the will to live (tanhā) and grasping or clinging (upādāna to understand (R.D.). See note 92.

77 The plowing and the sowing.

78ñāna and paññā.

79moho. The realization that there cannot be a substantial individual soul (an "I"), as postulated by the naive opinion as the carrier of the subjective phenomena (because substance and causality exclude each other), consequently leads in Buddhism to the independence of the phenomena . Thoughts and feelings have objective reality, and the individual is an ever changing aggregate of physical and psychological forces, some of which determine action.

80 The one who has already attained nirvāna but has to wait for the end of his life to enter parinirvāna.

81Yo hetu yo paccayo. This is a standing phrase that often means nothing more than "the various causes".

82 That is, is the religious development of those who have such feelings favored or hindered by them, or neither?

83 The author saves himself the list because everyone who is halfway acquainted with Buddhism knows immediately that he has to think about the six senses - the known five and the memory (the memory, imagination). Every pleasant, every unpleasant and every indifferent feeling can be combined with a visual impression, an auditory impression, etc. occur (see note 28), and each of these 3 x 6 feelings can belong to the present, the past or the future, and each of these 3 x 6 x 3 feelings is ethically evaluated by the fact that it is from the point of view of enjoyable life or by the "Serious thinking" (sati, smrti, see p. 29) of the disciple of truth is understood. This, of course, very artificial calculation actually results in 3 x 6 x 3 x 2 = 108 different types of feelings.

84 The threefold karman (kamma) consists of works of the body, tongue and mind. Karman means 1) the act itself; 2) the germ of life that every selfish act (every act based on "thirst" and "ignorance"; see note 92) leaves behind in the perpetrator in the form of a latent force; 3) the subjective effect of this force, which can be seen during reincarnation or even earlier. Every new birth is determined by the totality of the latent forces or dispositions (samskāras) present, which, according to the deeds, are of three types; see note 42.

85 The word is the same as above (nāma-rupa) and just for the sake of variety I have translated it differently here.

86addhā (Time) literally means »route« »way.«

87 As is often the case in Buddhist texts, the words sa change herenkhārā and dhammā.

88 As is often the case in Buddhist texts, the words sa change herenkhārā and dhammā.

[144] 89 "When they died" (ye ... kālakatā) is to be understood here in a futuristic way as "when they will have died". These are those who have been redeemed during lifetime, the arhats, who only outwardly continue to belong to the "realm of death", but have in truth already reached the "deathless place" in which there is no time or becoming. In this sense, for example, in our oldest text, the Sutta-Nipāta, the living redeemed becomes kappâtito "Who has overcome time (temporality)", 1kappamjaho "Who has left time behind" and even parlnibbuto Called "completely extinguished" (373 1101, 370).

90 Strictly speaking, the plural is inadmissible here, since the "completely extinguished" i.e. dead Arhat no longer has any individuality, is no longer one of the many, but is above number (na upeti samkham, Sutta-Nipāta 1074, 209 749 etc.).

91paccayā, literally "by following", see note 37. One should be careful not to think of an emergence in the sense of a transformation, as is the case, for example, in the alleged model of the Buddhist Paticca-samuppāda (see next note), the Pratyayasarga the Sāmkhya philosophy. The "conversion theory" (parināma-vāda) stands in direct contradiction to the Buddha's teaching of not-self (note 25), because it is a substantial primordial matter (pradhāna) presupposes from which everything develops. The paccayā Our formula means nothing more than the regular succession, [145] that is, neither the continuous development of a substantial something nor, as has recently been asserted, 2 a mere relationship of dependence without regard to time. The difference from Sāmkhya, the completely different kind of connection of the members in Paticca-samuppāda, shows - to take an example from the following - particularly clearly the relation of the fourth to the fifth member: “The result of name-and-form arises Six interior seat «. "Name and form" (nāma-rūpa, see p. 45 fg. u.S. 50) is the psycho-physical, gifted individual; that, with the exception of the mano (Note 31) and its special objects, the "realm of the six" belonging to the physical (rūpa) (sal-āyatana) are the six senses3 together with all possible objects corresponding to them, but before sensory perception (this only occurs with the next link, the "contact"), that is, as supersensible conditions of the latter. Consequently, there can be no question here of an emergence from the individual.Rather, the sentence simply means that the spiritual and physical being, as soon as it leaves the womb, is already in an initially inactive relationship to the things of the outside world, as these and the senses stand opposite one another, such as two lines of battle that have not yet become common .

[146] 92 This is the much controversial formula of causality, the paticca-samuppāda (Skt. Pratītya-samutpāda), that is, "subsequent appearance", later called the twelve nidānas ("causes"), through which the Buddha started the cycle of life (birth – death – rebirth) explained. At the beginning of every action there is the "contact" of a sense with one or more of the objects that correspond to it: the face with the shapes and colors, the hearing with the tones, etc. 4 (link 6). As a result of the "touch" arises the "feeling" (member 7) and through this, insofar as it is related to a permanent I (i.e. for everyone who does not know the doctrine of the not-I), the "thirst" (member 8) that is, the selfish desire, the passion. This is immediately followed by the "grasping" of what is desired (member 9), and with this the "becoming" begins immediately, i.e. the growth or emergence of a Sammskāra (member 10). The further consequence is then inevitably a new birth (member 11), which in turn, like all previous ones, lets us experience the misery of the world (member 12), and so it comes again and again as a result of our "ignorance" (member 1) about the nature of existence (the three attributes, note 69) and the nature of the life process (as it is explained by this formula) through new samskāras (limb 2), ie new karman (note 84), to new life: im At the moment of death, "knowing" (member 3), ie the germ of the spiritual skandhas5, begins to combine in [147] a new womb6 with new matter to form a new spiritual and physical being (member 4); Birth takes place, and again the senses and objects stand opposite one another (member 5), there is a new "touch" (member 6), new feeling (member 7), new "thirst" (member 8) and so on.

So "ignorance" is the root of time insofar as it is the root of becoming. We are dealing here with the knowledge (not yet raised to clear consciousness) that becoming is objectively real, time, on the other hand, is only the measure of change, only a relationship of things and without them nothing at all.

93 See note 92 end. A distinction between subjective and objective time is alien to ancient Buddhism.

94 Compare the first note to note 91.

95 Face, face object, organ of thought. See p. 63 with note. The "visual consciousness" is followed by the "visual touch" (Mahāvagga I, 21), i.e. the sight is followed by the looking, the unconscious is followed by the conscious application of the organ in question.

96 This applies not only to rebirth, but also to the constant renewal of the eye (through the "metabolism") during the individual life. See note 70.

97 See above p. 52 fg. and Samyutta Nikāya vol. II, p. 179 fg .: »The wandering of beings, their disciples, begins in eternity. No beginning can be discerned from which beings, trapped in ignorance, shackled by the thirst for existence, wander around and wander "(Oldenberg, Buddha, p. 246). [Nâhosîti translated R.D. with "It is to us as if it were not," which does not give any real meaning and also appears inadmissible because of the tense (aorist). Ahosi is used everywhere in the M.P. only used with reference to the occurrence of a condition or an action, or to a one-off event, z. B. ed. P. 5: rājā ahosi "Became king"; tunhī ahosi "fell silent"; rañño etad ahosi "The thought occurred to the king"; [148] Tena kho pana samayena Sāgala-nagaram dvādasa vassāni suññam ahosi ... "At that time it was twelve years since the city of Sāgala was empty (of philosophers, etc.)," ​​literally: "At that time the city of S. had been empty for twelve years." On the meaning of the verb, see also ed. P. 52: Atthi keci sankhāra ye abhavantā ("Without becoming") jāyantîti?]

98 Every single life is caused by lack of knowledge (avidyā, Link 1 of the causal nexus: note 92) in the previous life. So it is impossible to find the beginning of the whole chain of courses of existence. On the other hand, in the case of the links in the chain, the individual lives, the beginning and end must be precisely determined.

99 The skandhas (p. 13, note 27–31) of the next life are already preformed in this life by the Karman (note 84).

100 That means: »there are tendencies etc. (Samskāras) that are not innate, but arise only during life? «The sage answers with the paticca-samuppāda (note 92), which is supposed to show how the dispositions arise and that there is none of the nidānas without that previous comes about, only one of them needs to be completely exterminated in order to bring the whole process to a standstill. The nidāna to be immediately exterminated, however, is of course not the six-minded seat with which nāgasena begins the paticca-samuppāda, but rather the "thirst" and the "grasping", with their annihilation, since the nidānas move in a circle (p. 52, 53, 54), the creation of a new six-seat seat is prevented.

101 In the Buddhist texts women are always mentioned before men (R.D.).

102 The translation of the Pāli expressions can only be given here as a guess.

103vedagu.

104rūpa = outward appearance, shape, color.

105 From R.D. missunderstood. It should not be said again here what was already explained in the previous paragraph: that every sense has its specific perceptions and no others, rather something new: namely that [149] the conditions of sensory activity are by no means the same for all senses. "As a result of the brightness of the day" (mahantena ākāsena) is expressly reiterating what R.D. apparently overlooked.

106phasso, vedanā, saññā, cetanā, ekaggatā, jīvitindriyam, manasikāro.

107cakkhu-viññāna.

108mano-viññāna, see note 31. The activity of the relevant sense is followed by that of the organ of thought.

109phasso, vedanā saññā, cetanā, vitakko, vicaro.

110dhammā, See note 30.

111 Good karman (kusalam kammam), see note 84, has the double success that he who has acquired it is first reborn in a heavenly world and then under favorable conditions on earth.

112 According to the number of the five senses. From the sixth sense (manas) is here, as is sometimes the case, disregarded.

113saññā, see note 29.

114sañjānana, see note 29.

115cetanā.

116akusalam kammam cetanāya cetayitvā.

117 i.e. he will be in one of the four disastrous states (apāya): reborn as hell dweller, animal, ghost or evil spirit. 7

118 To "Heavenly World" (sagga-loka) see note 143, also p. 100 et al.

119viññāna, see note 31.

120vijānana, literally »knowing apart« while sañjānana (Note 114) literally means "knowing together", which, however, does not come into consideration for the translation, because synthesis and distinction cannot be separated from one another except in theory, and moreover viññāna both and also includes the concept of evaluating. See note 158.

121yañ ca manasā dammam vijānāti, tam viññānena vijānāti. It is a matter of recognizing the ideas as such.

[150] 122 vitakka.

123appanā.

124vicara.

125 anumajjana.

126 An addendum begins here.

127 Salt and sugar in the powdered state can appear to have the same appearance and the same weight: the direct decision (not mediated by inference) is then made by the sense of taste alone.

128 E.g. the white color object of the visual sense. - R.D. gives a completely different, hardly correct translation: “It is impossible to bring salt by itself. But all these conditions have run together into one, and produced the distinctive thing called salt. (For instance): salt is heavy too. "The text reads:"Na sakkā, mahārāja, lonam-eva āharitum; ekato bhāvam gatā ete dhammā gocara-nānattam gatā, lonam garubhāvo vā ti.«

129 The manas or organ of thought is sometimes not counted among the senses because, like these, it does not belong to "corporeality".

130 It is the general Indian view that the origin and nature of each individual sense depends on the predominantly good or bad use that the person concerned uses in the bw. made the previous life of the same organ. For example, congenital blindness (or blindness resulting from illness) is explained as the result of an eye sin committed in the previous life, 8 deafness or hearing impairment is attributed to failure to heed well-intentioned advice, etc .; see p. 54. A long list of innate faults and their causes, admittedly not from a Buddhist hand, is given by the Çabdakalpa-druma in the section »Maturity for Action« (karma-vipāka). - R.D. is in doubt which of the two meanings of āyatana in our place. But here only the senses and not at the same time their objects can be meant, since even in the later Milinda-Panha (IX, 7, 18) the outside world is not "born karma" but as the result of mechanical causes or the Seasons is understood. Moreover, the Paticca-samuppāda does not claim that from the nāma-rūpa the senses emerge together with their objects, but only that through the nāmarūpa the possibility of sensory perception that only becomes reality in "touch" (link 6) is given; see notes 92 and 91.

131 Karman, see note 84. The following saying of the Buddha comes from III, 4, 5 of the Majjhima-Nikāya and is often quoted.

132nirodha, also "inhibition", "oppression", "destruction."

133 Literally: »Do (you) not hike any further, but relate (you) again?" (Na ca sankamati patisandahati ca?) See note 71. Our subjective expression does not fit here at all, because it is currently being denied that a permanent I can save itself from this existence into the next. According to the Buddhist view, dying and the immediately following being born mean nothing more or less than that a process that has been going on since time immemorial is entering a new phase (cf. note 70). Buddhism cannot teach immortality of the soul, firstly because it does not admit the existence of a substantial (individual) soul at all, secondly because it would otherwise deny the possibility of salvation, which consists in the cessation of all "I and mine" .

134abbocchinnāya santatiyā "With uninterrupted continuation". The present life is a tree, the special kind of reincarnation its fruit, from which a tree develops again etc, ie the karman as seed (note 84) [152] is a force that remains latent in this life and only in the can be recognized by their effects in the next life.

135parinibbuto, see note 46.

136anupādisesāya nibbāna dhātuyā "In the nirvāna element without an upādi residue". Upādi is a name for the five skandhas, the nirvāna with an upādi residue (savupādisesa) consequently the nirvāna already enjoyed by the arhat on earth.

1379 Just as, according to the Indian (already Vedic) view, the fire does not actually arise, but only appears or becomes visible, emerges from its hiding place, so its going out is also understood as a mere becoming invisible, as a "going home" and, next to it nirvāna "Blow away", expressed by the same word as the "sinking" of the stars10, namely atta (n) -gama "Go home". Aggi attham paleti (gacchati) originally means: "The fire goes home", that is, to where it came from; from the temporary it regains its original, pure state in which it is not accessible to sensual perception.

In this way alone it can be understood that Ātman-Brahman-Purusha (the Absolute, God, the soul) is called in several Upanishads a fire whose firewood is burned, as in the Çvetāçvatara-Up. (VI, 18, 19): »... to that God (deva) Seeking redemption, I take my refuge, which shines only through the brightness of my own spirit, which is without parts and without work, in blissful rest (çānta, literally ›extinguished‹) flawless, without make-up, the highest bridge of immortality, like the fire whose firewood has been consumed.(dagdhêndhanam ivânalam) « and Nrsimhôttaratāpinī-Up. (2 middle) ayam ātma cid-rūpa eva yathā dahyam dagdhvā gnir "That Ātman is pure spirit, comparable to fire after it has [153] burned the combustible," furthermore Maitreyi-Up. (1, 3) 11: Yathā nirindhano vahnih sva-yonāv upaçāmyati, tathā vrttikshayāc cittam sva-yonāv upaçāmyati “Just as the fire without firewood (the fire that runs out of firewood) comes to rest in its cradle, so when it ceases to move, the organ of thought comes to rest (citta) to rest in his cradle «. That in the last verse under the "cradle" (yoni = "Womb, womb, home, origin") the absolute is to be understood, suggests the above verses, moreover results from the context and is also confirmed by the Maitrāyana-Upanishad, which cites our verse in VI, 31 in this same sense . The "cessation of movements" (vrtti-kshaya) but is to be understood in such a way that all influences of the outside world are gradually to be banished, a process that is very nicely symbolized in the calming of the stormy sea, but perhaps even better, at least as far as it is about the dying redeemed, through the image of the diamond, which is cleaned from the layer of dust covering it - where the dust then means everything that we imagine as our spiritual and physical personality, the diamond, on the other hand, our completely unimaginable real self. For the aim of this philosophy is precisely to "be alone" of the soul by "suppressing the movements of the organ of thought" (purusha), i.e. their detachment from the whole psycho-physical world (prakrti) bring about.

This last of the above quotations is particularly noteworthy because it conveys to us the image of the extinguished fire in connection with the basic idea of ​​the yoga philosophy, through whose school Buddha went [154] and of which he went through various things, including almost the entire practice who has taken over jhānas (dhyānas), or ecstatic states, into his teaching.13 Like yoga, Buddha's constant preaching is thought (citta, ceto) from the influences (āsava) to purify the outside world, then the redemption that can already be achieved on earth is a "redemption from thinking" (or from thinking, ceto-vimutti) - according to the citta-vimukti of yoga, and as the immediate preliminary stage of salvation to be reached in ecstasy and when entering into parinirvāna, he regards the "cessation of ideas and feelings" (saññā-vedayita-nirodha) - just like the yogin the asamprajñāta-samādhi, the "immersion without consciousness". Under such circumstances it is likely that the Buddha borrowed the image of the extinguished flame from yoga. In any case, he borrowed it, as did all the other terms applied to nirvāna14. But is it in the least likely that he appropriated this image in order to speak out for a metaphysical nihilism in order to show that he does not believe in an absolute I (better being)? If not, the majority of our modern researchers have a misconception of nirvāna. Because the use of the image can be traced back to the Buddha himself, since it can be found in the oldest of the texts we have received, the Sutta-Nipāta (V, 7), as well as in the Majjhima-Nikāya (II, 3, 2). and in the Udāna (VIII, 10), probably also in other parts of the canon. In order to enable everyone to make their own judgment, I want to translate the essentials of these passages, but first I want to translate a few to be compared with them or the relationship between citta-buddhi-manas and ātman-brahman-purusha-icvara give explanatory quotes from the Upanishad. [155]

The Maitreyi Upanishad quoted above continues in v. 6: By being calm in thought (cittasya prasādena) one repels the karman, good as well as bad; the calmed self (prasann 'atma) enjoying immortal happiness, rooting in oneself, "and in the following verses the" supreme lord "is (param'eçvara) characterized as follows: "Witness the dance of buddhi (= citta, manas)," "outside the realm of understanding and language," "beyond the limit of imagination", the "depth" (gambhīra), "Which is called the nirvana-like15" (nirvānamaya-samvidam).

Maitrāyana-Up. VI, 2016: “Whoever sees the self through his self, shining finer than the subtle, with the disappearance of mana, who, by seeing the self through his self, becomes selfless(mirātman),and by virtue of selflessness it is as innumerable (asankhya)and for no reason(ayoni) toothink."

Brahmabindu-Up. 1. fg.17: “For the Manas is explained as of two kinds: pure and impure. Unclean is what lusts for pleasure, pure what is alienated from pleasure. Manas is the cause of bondage as well as the solution for people: of bondage when it clings to the sensory things, of redemption when it is free from you .... ...... when the manas has been forced down in the heart and (in this way) comes into the manasless state18, which is free from clinging to things, that is his (manas) highest place. One has to restrain it until it has been destroyed in the heart .... ...... Then one attains the Brahman that is neither to be thought nor to think, the Brahman that is not to be thought and thought .... .... ..... the indistinguishable, infinite, groundless and unprecedented, immeasurable (aprameyam), beginningless. "

Without further ado, however, these passages must not be put in parallel with those of the Buddhist canon that are of interest to us. One has to be clear beforehand and keep in mind: 1) that for practical reasons (and presumably also for theoretical reasons: as the absolutely unspeakable) the absolute, the spaceless and timeless Brahman, does not mention the absolute at all; 2) that for him redemption is a redemption from becoming and thus from time in such a strict sense that he denies the redeemed any kind of continuation, including eternal; 19 3) that the redemption he taught is a redemption from Individuality and therefore not identical to that of Purusha in Sāmkhya-Yoga; 4) that he admittedly theism and the pantheistically misunderstood Tattvamasi (so loko so attā "World and soul are one") 20, but never combated the real Vedānta (of a Yājñavalkya, etc.).

But then, as it seems to me, the inevitable conclusion is that in the passages mentioned in the Sutta-Pitaka, to which we are now finally turning, the complete cessation of the individuality of the redeemed is not only intended as such.

Majjh. Nik. I, 1, J. explains how to do the ceto-vimut ti the liberation from worldly disposition, and so that nirvāna could be achieved: "...... In all directions he (the monk), all-embracing, shines through the whole world with his calm21 mind, the vast, great, limitless, [157 ] hateless, flawless. He recognizes: ›There is common and there is noble [in the world], and there is a refuge beyond this world of the senses.‹ 22 And when he recognizes this, sees this, his thinking is freed from the influences of sensuality, becomes his thinking freed from the influences of becoming, his thinking is freed from the influences of ignorance. ›In the redeemed (is) something redeemed‹ 23: this knowledge dawns on him. ›The birth has dried up, the holy life lived out, what had to be done done, nothing binds us to this world from now on‹: that's how he recognizes.

Majjh. Nik. II, 3, 2 (Aggi-Vacchagotta-Sutta):

“A monk, friend Gotama, who has now freed his mind in this way (vimutta-citto), where does the (uppajjati)24 [after death]? "

"It cannot be said that he will arise, Vaccha."

"So, friend Gotama, isn't he rising?"

"You can't say that he won't rise, Vaccha".

"So, friend Gotama, does he arise as well as does he not arise?"

"It cannot be said that he both ascends and does not ascend, Vaccha."

"So, friend Gotama, does he neither arise nor does he not arise?"

"It cannot be said that he neither ascends nor does not ascend, Vaccha." 25 [158]

"Now, my friend Gotama, I have become ignorant, now I have become confused, and all the satisfaction I had gained through the earlier conversation with Mr. Gotama has now been lost."

“No longer should you be ignorant, Vaccha, no longer confused. Deep, Vaccha, this thing is difficult to see, difficult to understand, calm, noble, beyond the realm of reason, subtle, (only) to be found by wise men. It will be difficult for you to recognize that you do not have the same outlook, perseverance, inclination, restraint and way of life (as I do). Therefore, Vaccha, I want to ask you a counter-question for the time being; as you like it, you may answer them. What do you think, Vaccha: if there was a fire burning in front of you, would you know: 'This fire is burning in front of me'? "

"If, friend Gotama, a fire burned in front of me, I would know: 'This fire burns in front of me'."

“If now, Vaccha, someone asked you: 'That fire that burns in front of you, by what means (kim paticca) is it on fire? ‹So asked, Vaccha, what would you answer?"